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Kidney cancer in Australia

Kidney cancer incorporates ICD-10 cancer code C64 (Malignant neoplasm of kidney).


Estimated number of new cases of kidney cancer diagnosed in 2017

3,512 = Male icon PNG 2,256 males + Female icon PNG 1,256 females


kidney-percent-all-new-cases

Estimated % of all new cancer cases diagnosed in 2017

2.6%


Estimated number of deaths from kidney cancer in 2017

1,049 = Male icon PNG 681 males + Female icon PNG 368 females


kidney-percent-all-deaths

Estimated % of all deaths from cancer in 2017

2.2%


75-in-100

Chance of surviving at least 5 years (2009–2013)

75%


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People living with kidney cancer at the end of 2012 (diagnosed in the 5 year period 2008 to 2012)

11,058


New cases of kidney cancer

Kidney cancer was the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australia in 2013. It is estimated that it will remain the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in 2017.

In 2013, there were 3,059 new cases of kidney cancer diagnosed in Australia (1,987 males and 1,071 females). In 2017, it is estimated that 3,512 new cases of kidney cancer will be diagnosed in Australia (2,256 males and 1,256 females).

In 2013, the age-standardised incidence rate was 12 cases per 100,000 persons (16 for males and 8.1 for females). In 2017, it is estimated that the age-standardised incidence rate will be 12 cases per 100,000 persons (17 for males and 8.5 for females). The incidence rate of kidney cancer is expected to generally increase with age up to age group 75–79; then slightly decrease for older age groups (Figure 1).

In 2017, it is estimated that the risk of an individual being diagnosed with kidney cancer by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 65 (1 in 49 males and 1 in 95 females).

The number of new cases of kidney cancer diagnosed increased from 793 (534 males and 259 females) in 1982 to 3,059 in 2013. Over the same period, the age-standardised incidence rate increased from 6.2 cases per 100,000 persons (9.4 for males and 3.7 for females) in 1982 to 12 cases per 100,000 persons in 2013 (Figure 2).

Deaths from kidney cancer

In 2014, kidney cancer was the 18th most common cause of cancer death in Australia. It is estimated that it will become the 17th most common cause of death from cancer in 2017.

In 2014, there were 920 deaths from kidney cancer in Australia (574 males and 346 females). In 2017, it is estimated that this will increase to 1,049 deaths (681 males and 368 females).

In 2014, the age-standardised mortality rate was 3.4 deaths per 100,000 persons (4.6 for males and 2.3 for females). In 2017, it is estimated that the age-standardised mortality rate will be 3.5 deaths per 100,000 persons (5.0 for males and 2.2 for females). The mortality rate for kidney cancer is generally expected to increase with age (Figure 1).

In 2017, it is estimated that the risk of an individual dying from kidney cancer by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 216 (1 in 152 males and 1 in 347 females).

The number of deaths from kidney cancer increased from 300 (190 males and 110 females) in 1968 to 920 in 2014. Over the same period, the age-standardised mortality rate remained fairly consistent, with 3.3 deaths per 100,000 persons (4.6 for males and 2.3 for females) in 1968 to 3.4 deaths per 100,000 persons in 2014 (Figure 2).

Figure 1: Estimated age-specific incidence and mortality rates for kidney cancer, by sex, 2017

This line chart presents the estimated age-specific incidence (solid line) and mortality (dashed line) rates of kidney cancer for males (blue), females (purple) and persons (green) in 2017. The age-specific incidence and mortality rates are shown on the primary (left) y-axis, with 5-year age groups from ages 0–4 to 85+ shown on the x-axis.

Source: AIHW [1].

Figure 2: Age-standardised incidence rates for kidney cancer 1982–2013 and age-standardised mortality rates for kidney cancer 1968–2014, by sex

This line chart presents the estimated age-standardised incidence (solid line) and mortality (dashed line) rates (per 100,000) of kidney cancer for males (blue), females (purple) and persons (green) over the period 1982–2013 for incidence and 1968–2014 for mortality. The age standardised incidence and mortality rates, expressed per 100,000 persons, are shown on the primary (left) y-axis. Years from 1968 to 2014 are presented on the x-axis.

Source: AIHW [2].

Survival from kidney cancer

In 2009–2013 in Australia, individuals diagnosed with kidney cancer had a 75% chance (75% for males and 76% for females) of surviving for 5 years compared to their counterparts in the general Australian population.

Between 1984–1988 and 2009–2013, 5-year relative survival from kidney cancer improved from 49% to 75%.

Figure 3: 5-year relative survival from kidney cancer, 1984–1988 to 2009–2013

This line chart presents 5-year relative survival at diagnosis for kidney cancer by males, females and persons over the period 1984–1988 to 2009–2013. The percentage of survival is presented on the y-axis.

Source: AIHW [1].

Survivorship population for kidney cancer

The survivorship population is measured using prevalence data. Prevalence refers to the number of people alive who have previously been diagnosed with kidney cancer.

The prevalence for 1, 5 and 31 years given below are the number of people living with kidney cancer at the end of 2012 who had been diagnosed in the preceding 1, 5 and 31 years respectively.

At the end of 2012, there were 2,825 people living who had been diagnosed with kidney cancer that year, 11,058 people who had been diagnosed with kidney cancer in the previous 5 years (from 2008 to 2012) and 25,852 people who had been diagnosed with kidney cancer in the previous 31 years (from 1982 to 2012).


Data notes

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD-10)

Cancer is classified by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD-10). This is a statistical classification, published by the World Health Organization, in which each morbid condition is assigned a unique code according to established criteria.

Estimations

Future estimations for incidence and mortality are a mathematical extrapolation of past trends. They assume that the most recent trends will continue into the future, and are intended to illustrate future changes that might reasonably be expected to occur if the stated assumptions continue to apply over the estimated period. Actual future cancer incidence and mortality rates may vary from these estimations. For instance, new screening programs may increase the detection of new cancer cases; new vaccination programs may decrease the risk of developing cancer; and improvements in treatment options may decrease mortality rates.

Incidence

Cancer incidence indicates the number of new cancers diagnosed during a specified time period (usually one year).

The 2013 national incidence counts include estimates for NSW because the actual data were not available. Note that actual data for the Australian Capital Territory do not include cases identified from death certificates.

The 2017 estimates are based on 2004–13 incidence data. Due to rounding of these estimates, male and female incidence may not sum to person incidence.

Mortality

Cancer mortality refers to the number of deaths occurring during a specified time period (usually one year) for which the underlying cause of death is cancer.

The 2017 estimates are based on mortality data up to 2013. Joinpoint analysis was used on the longest time series of age-standardised rates available to determine the starting year of the most recent trend.

Prevalence

Prevalence of cancer refers to the number of people alive with a prior diagnosis of cancer at a given time. It is distinct from incidence, which is the number of new cancers diagnosed within a given period of time. The longest period for which it is possible to calculate prevalence using the available national data (from 1982 to 2012) is currently 31 years so this is used to provide an estimate of the ‘total’ prevalence of cancer as at the end of 2012, noting that people diagnosed with cancer before 1982 aren’t included.

Age standardised rates

Incidence and mortality rates expressed per 100,000 population are age-standardised to the Australian population as at 30 June 2001.


References

  1. Australia Institute of Health and Welfare 2017. Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books: Kidney cancer. Canberra:AIHW. www.aihw.gov.au/acim-books [Accessed February 2017].
  2. AIHW 2017. Cancer in Australia 2017. Cancer series no. 101. Cat. No. CAN 100. Canberra: AIHW.