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Leukaemia incorporates ICD-10 cancer codes C91 (lymphoid leukaemia), C92 (myeloid leukaemia), C93 (monocytic leukaemia), C94 (other leukaemias of specified cell type) and C95 (leukaemias of unspecified cell type).
In 2012, there were 3,297 new cases of leukaemia diagnosed in Australia (1,993 males and 1,305 females).a In 2016, it is estimated that 3,624 new cases of leukaemia will be diagnosed in Australia (2,159 males and 1,465 females).b
In 2012, the age-standardised incidence rate was 13 cases per 100,000 persons (17 for males and 10 for females).d In 2016, it is estimated that the age-standardised incidence rate will be 13 cases per 100,000 persons (17 for males and 10 for females).
Leukaemia was the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in Australia in 2012. It is estimated that it will remain the 9th most commonly diagnosed cancer in 2016.
In 2016, it is estimated that the risk of an individual being diagnosed with leukaemia by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 62 (1 in 49 males and 1 in 80 females).
In 2016, from age group 20–24 to age group 85+, the incidence rate of leukaemia is expected to generally increase with age (see figure below).
Source: AIHW analysis of the Australian Cancer Database, (see source table 1).
In 2013, there were 1,645 deaths from leukaemia in Australia (966 males and 679 females). In 2016, it is estimated that this will increase to 1,795 deaths (1,080 males and 715 females).c
In 2013, the age-standardised mortality rate was 6.2 deaths per 100,000 persons (8.2 for males and 4.7 for females).d In 2016, it is estimated that the age-standardised mortality rate will be 6.2 deaths per 100,000 persons (8.3 for males and 4.5 for females).
In 2013, leukaemia accounted for the 8th highest number of deaths from cancer in Australia. It is estimated that it will remain the 8th most common cause of death from cancer in 2016.
In 2016, it is estimated that the risk of an individual dying from leukaemia by their 85th birthday will be 1 in 114 (1 in 85 for males and 1 in 162 for females).
The number of new cases of leukaemia diagnosed increased from 1,480 in 1982 to 3,297 in 2012.
Over the same period, the age-standardised incidence rate increased from 12 cases per 100,000 persons in 1982 to 13 cases per 100,000 persons in 2012.
The number of deaths from leukaemia increased from 721 in 1968 to 1,645 in 2013.
Over the same period, the age-standardised mortality rate decreased from 7.5 deaths per 100,000 persons in 1968 to 6.2 deaths per 100,000 in 2013.
Note: Incidence rates available for 1982–2012, and mortality rates available for 1968–2013.
Source: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, (see source table 2).
In 2008–2012 in Australia, individuals diagnosed with leukaemia had a 58% chance of surviving for 5 years compared to their counterparts in the general Australian population.
Between 1983–1987 and 2008–2012, 5-year relative survival from leukaemia improved from 38% to 58%.
Source: AIHW analysis of the Australian Cancer Database, (see source table 3).
The prevalence for 1, 5 and 29 years given below are the number of people living with leukaemia at the end of 2010 who had been diagnosed in the preceding 1, 5 and 29 years respectively.
At the end of 2010, there were 2,570 people living who had been diagnosed with leukaemia that year.
At the end of 2010, there were 9,606 people living who had been diagnosed with leukaemia in the previous 5 years (from 2006 to 2010).
At the end of 2010, there were 22,634 people living who had been diagnosed with leukaemia in the previous 29 years (from 1982 to 2010).
More information on leukaemia from Cancer Australia
Cancer, like other health conditions, is classified by the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems Version 10 (ICD-10). This is a statistical classification, published by the World Health Organization, in which each morbid condition is assigned a unique code according to established criteria.
Future estimates for incidence and mortality are a mathematical extrapolation of past trends. They assume that the most recent trends will continue into the future, and are intended to illustrate future changes that might reasonably be expected to occur if the stated assumptions continue to apply over the estimated period. Actual future cancer incidence and mortality rates may vary from these estimations for a variety of factors. New screening programs may increase the detection of new cancer cases; new vaccination programs may decrease the risk of developing cancer; and improvements in treatment options may decrease mortality rates.
Due to the rounding of these estimates, male and female incidence and mortality may not sum to person incidence and mortality.
Cancer incidence indicates the number of new cancers diagnosed during a specified time period (usually one year).
Cancer mortality refers to the number of deaths occurring during a specified time period (usually one year) for which the underlying cause of death is cancer.
Prevalence of cancer refers to the number of people alive with a prior diagnosis of cancer at a given time. It is distinct from incidence (see above). The longest period for which it is possible to calculate prevalence using the available national data (from 1982 to 2010) is currently 29 years. This span is used to estimate the 'total' prevalence of cancer at the end of 2010, noting that people diagnosed with cancer before 1982 are not included.