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Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: Australian facts mortality

Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease—Australian facts is a series of 5 reports by the National Centre for Monitoring Vascular Diseases at the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare that describe the combined burden of cardiovascular disease (including coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes and chronic kidney disease. This report on Mortality presents up-to-date statistics as well as trends on deaths from these chronic diseases. It examines age and sex characteristics, and variations across population groups, including among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, by geographical location, and by socioeconomic disadvantage.

Acute coronary syndrome: validation of the method used to monitor incidence in Australia

Monitoring the incidence of acute coronary events is critical to assess the health and economic burden of coronary heart disease. This working paper uses linked data from Western Australia and New South Wales to assess the central assumptions underlying the proxy measure for estimating the incidence of acute coronary events, in the absence of a heart disease register.  This validation study shows that the algorithm may underestimate the incidence of acute coronary events in Australia, but despite this the methodology does provide a reasonable measure of the acute coronary events in Australia.

Trends in coronary heart disease mortality: age groups and populations

Coronary heart disease is Australia’s leading cause of death, and although death rates have fallen substantially over recent decades, declines among some age groups appear to have slowed.Trends in coronary heart disease mortality: age groups and populations examines how the decline has varied between young adults, middle-aged and older persons, and among different population groups, including by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status, geographic location and socioeconomic status.

Health care expenditure on cardiovascular diseases 2008-09

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) makes a considerable impact on the health of Australians and has the highest level of health-care expenditure of any disease group.Between 2000-01 and 2008-09, health-care expenditure allocated to CVD increased by 48% from $5,207 million to $7,717 million.The health-care sector with the largest increase (55%) was hospital admitted patients.

Stroke and its management in Australia: an update

This report presents a comprehensive picture about, and the latest data on, stroke and how it is managed in Australia. It examines the impact of stroke on patients, their carers, the health system and aged care services. In particular for stroke patients, the report includes information on incidence, prevalence, hospitalisation, disability, treatment and deaths. The report also examines trends and inequalities in stroke and it's management in Australia; and makes international comparisons; and identifies data gaps.

Rheumatic heart disease and acute rheumatic fever in Australia: 1996-2012

This report examines and presents a range of data on acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in Australia. It shows that ARF now occurs almost exclusively in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and that the prevalence of RHD is much higher among Indigenous people than other Australians. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are also considerably more likely to be hospitalised with ARF or RHD, and to die from RHD.

Risk factor trends: age patterns in key health risk factors over time

This report presents comparisons over time for different age groups for key health risk factors, including overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The good news is that smoking rates have declined, particularly among younger people. However, overweight/obesity rates have increased for virtually all age groups, especially females aged 12 to 44.

Monitoring acute coronary syndrome using national hospital data: an information paper on trends and issues

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to the spectrum of acute coronary artery diseases spanning acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina (UA). They are sudden, severe and life-threatening events.This report reviews the current algorithm for monitoring the incidence of ACS in Australia, presenting a detailed analysis of hospitalisations for AMI and UA.  It also presents a range of alternative algorithms for the estimation of ACS incidence. Further work is required to validate these algorithms.

Cardiovascular disease: Australian facts 2011

 Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a very common and serious disease in Australia with about 3.5 million people reporting having the condition in 2007-08. Despite significant advances in the treatment of CVD and for some of its risk factors,  it remains the cause of more deaths than any other disease - about 50,000 in 2008 - and the most expensive, costing about $5.2 billion in 2004-05.  And not all sectors of Australian society are affected equally by CVD with people in lower socioeconomic groups, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and those living in the remote areas of Australia often more likely to be hospitalised with, or to die from CVD than other members of the population.

Women and heart disease: cardiovascular profile of women in Australia

Cardiovascular disease is Australia's biggest killer. This report focuses on its impact on the health of Australian women - a group who may not be aware of how significant a threat this disease is to them. The report presents the latest data on prevalence, deaths, disability, hospitalisations, services, treatments, risk factors and expenditure, as well as comparisons to other important diseases among women. This report is a useful resource for policy makers, researchers, health professionals and anyone interested in cardiovascular disease in Australian women.

Women and heart disease: summary

Cardiovascular disease is Australia's biggest killer. This report provides a summary of cardiovascular disease and its impact on the health of Australian women. Women and heart disease: summary presents the key findings of its companion report, Women and heart disease: cardiovascular profile of women in Australia and looks at prevalence, deaths, disability, hospitalisations, medical services, treatments, risk factors and health care expenditure, as well as comparisons with other important diseases among women.

Cardiovascular disease mortality: trends at different ages

Despite a dramatic reduction since the late 1960s, cardiovascular disease remains the largest cause of death in Australia. Cardiovascular disease mortality: trends at different ages examines recent data to determine if the observed decrease in cardiovascular disease deaths since the 1960s is shared across disease sub-types and among different population groups. This report includes information on the past and recent trends of key cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke, and describes how trends vary on the basis of age group and sex. International trends are also presented for comparison. The analyses presented in this report help to better understand what is driving the observed decrease in cardiovascular disease deaths, and are a useful resource for policy makers, researchers and health professionals interested in cardiovascular diseases.

Cardiovascular medicines and primary health care: a regional analysis

Cardiovascular medicines and primary health care: a regional analysis shows how the supply of cardiovascular medicines and primary health-care services differs across regions in Australia. This report examines the complex relationship between cardiovascular diseases, remoteness and the supply of cardiovascular medicines and primary health-care services. It will be of interest to policy makers, providers of health services, researchers in the field of cardiovascular disease, and members of the broader community.

Prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: targeting risk factors

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) account for around a quarter of the burden of disease in Australia, and just under two-thirds of all deaths. These three diseases often occur together and share risk factors, such as physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, and high blood pressure. This report includes information on the national prevalence of the main risk factors for CVD, CKD and diabetes as well as population initiatives and individual services that aim to prevent or control these risk factors. It shows the prevalence of some risk factors is increasing-notably obesity, which rose from 11% of adults in 1995 to 24% in 2007-08. This is the first report to present a systematic approach to monitor prevention in Australia, providing a baseline for future monitoring.

Impact of falling cardiovascular disease death rates: deaths delayed and years of life extended

Death rates from CVD and CHD have declined dramatically in Australia since their peak in the mid 1960s. This report quantifies the number of lives saved since the peak and looks briefly at the age and sex population groups where the impact was likely to have been highest.

Health care expenditure on cardiovascular diseases 2004-05

Health care expenditure on cardiovascular diseases 2004-05 presents summary data of allocated health expenditure collected by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. This report presents comparisons of allocated expenditure on cardiovascular disease over time and relative to other disease types. In addition, breakdowns of allocated expenditure according to age, sex and health sector are presented. This report is a useful resource for policy-makers, researchers and health professionals interested in cardiovascular disease.

Cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2004-05

Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem in Australia, with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples carrying the greatest burden of illness and death from this disease. Up-to-date estimates on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors are important for monitoring their impact on the health of Indigenous Australians. This report presents national-level information for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors, as well as on cardiovascular deaths. Results are based mostly on analysis of the Australian Bureau of Statistics' most recent National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey and National Health Survey conducted in 2004-05.

Comorbidity of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease in Australia

Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease are three common and serious illnesses in Australia. These three diseases have shared common risk factors, and often occur together. The National Centre for Monitoring Cardiovascular Disease and the National Centre for Monitoring Diabetes have collaborated to investigate the association of these diseases and their impact on Australians' health and health systems. This report is the first output of this project, and it focuses on examining the current extent of comorbidity of the conditions from three perspectives: self-reported prevalence, hospitalisation and deaths.

Medicines for cardiovascular health: are they used appropriately?

Medicines for cardiovascular health: are they used appropriately? covers trends in prescription and supply of these medicines, patterns of supply by geographic area and patient socioeconomic level, whether patients take medicines as intended, adverse events associated with these medicines, initiatives to improve the quality of use of medicines, and government expenditure on cardiovascular medicines.This report will be of interest to policy makers, health professionals and researchers in the field, as well as to the broader community.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with coronary heart disease: further perspectives on health status and treatment

'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with coronary heart disease: further perspectives on health status and treatment' builds on existing information on disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians in the health status and treatment of coronary heart disease. It is the first study of this scale to analyse data on Indigenous Australians in four key areas: incidence of major coronary events; case fatality from major coronary events; use of coronary procedures in hospital; case complexity in hospital. This new information enables us to build a more complete picture of the coronary heart disease burden among Indigenous Australians, and also furthers our knowledge of disparities in treatment of coronary heart disease in relation to need. This report will be of interest to policy makers, health professionals and researchers in the field, as well as to the broader community.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with coronary heart disease (summary booklet): further perspectives on health status and treatment

This summary presents the key points detailed in 'Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with coronary heart disease: further perspectives on health status and treatment'. That report builds on existing information on disparities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and other Australians in the health status and treatment of coronary heart disease. New information on the incidence of major coronary events, case fatality, use of coronary procedures in hospital and case complexity in hospital has built a more complete picture of the coronary heart disease burden among Indigenous Australians. This summary will be of interest to those policy makers and health professionals who prefer an overview of the main points, as well as to the broader community.

Socioeconomic inequalities in cardiovascular disease in Australia

It has been well established in Australia that people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality than other Australians. Further, there is evidence that the differential has widened, with relative CVD mortality inequality between Australians from the most disadvantaged areas and those from the least disadvantaged areas being higher in recent years than it was in the mid-1980s. A similar trend of widening socioeconomic inequalities in CVD mortality has also been observed in other OECD countries.This bulletin examines inequalities in CVD mortality over the 10-year period from 1992 to 2002 and hospitalisations over the period 1996-97 to 2003-04 for people aged 25-74 years to try to answer key questions in relation to mortality and significant morbidity requiring hospitalisation.

How we manage stroke in Australia

How we manage stroke in Australia presents a comprehensive picture of the impact of stroke on patient, their carers, the heath system and aged care services. It brings together the latest Australian data on the various phases of the management of people with stroke across the continuum of care. Where possible, it compares current practice to clinical guidelines for best practice in the care of stroke patients. It identifies improvements in care, areas where more needs to be done and gaps in our knowledge.

Living dangerously, Australians with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease

This bulletin provides a summary of the risk factor profile of Australian adults - focusing on risk factors for cardiovascular disease - both individually and in combination. Using self-reported data collected in the Australian Bureau of Statistics' 2001 National Health Survey, the nine risk factors examined are smoking, physical activity, low fruit consumption, low vegetable consumption, risky alcohol consumption, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, obesity and diabetes. The prevalence of multiple risk factors is described according to age, sex and socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease in order to identify population groups most at risk.

The relationship between overweight, obesity and cardiovascular disease: a literature review prepared for the National Heart Foundation Australia

The Relationship Between Overweight, Obesity and Cardiovascular Disease presents the latest evidence linking excess body weight with cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and their associated risk factors. Published by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the National Heart Foundation of Australia, this report is a valuable resource for the broader community as well as policy makers, health professionals and researchers interested in cardiovascular health.

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