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Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: Australian facts mortality
Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease—Australian facts is a series of 5 reports by the National Centre for Monitoring Vascular Diseases at the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare that describe the combined burden of cardiovascular disease (including coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes and chronic kidney disease. This report on Mortality presents up-to-date statistics as well as trends on deaths from these chronic diseases. It examines age and sex characteristics, and variations across population groups, including among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, by geographical location, and by socioeconomic disadvantage.
Assessment of the coding of ESKD in deaths and hospitalisation data: a working paper
Monitoring the impact of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is important in planning for future health needs of the population. This working paper uses linked data from Western Australia and New South Wales to assess the likelihood that a patient who is hospitalised with ESKD will have ESKD recorded on their death record, in order to establish whether mortality records in Australia reflect the actual disease pattern of people with ESKD.The study confirms that the ESKD codes used in the mortality data to estimate ESKD incidence are likely to underestimate the impact of ESKD—there is a high proportion of patients who are hospitalised with ESKD who do not have ESKD recorded on their death certificates.
Projections of the prevalence of treated end-stage kidney disease in Australia 2012-2020
End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) is the most severe form of chronic kidney disease with patients usually requiring kidney replacement therapy in the form of dialysis or kidney transplantation to survive. Projections of the prevalence of treated end-stage kidney disease in Australia presents national level projections of the number of people receiving kidney replacement therapy for their ESKD for the period 2012 to 2020. This information is important for predicting the future burden of ESKD in Australia.
Chronic kidney disease: regional variation in Australia
Chronic kidney disease is a common and serious problem in Australia and its management can be resource intensive, particularly for the most severe form of the disease: end-stage kidney disease. Rates of chronic kidney disease vary by geographic location.This report shows:people from Remote and very remote areas were 2.2 times more likely to die from chronic kidney disease than people from Major cities.people from Very remote areas were at least 4 times more likely to start kidney replacement therapy (dialysis or kidney transplant) than people from non-remote areas.
Risk factor trends: age patterns in key health risk factors over time
This report presents comparisons over time for different age groups for key health risk factors, including overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet, smoking and excessive alcohol consumption. The good news is that smoking rates have declined, particularly among younger people. However, overweight/obesity rates have increased for virtually all age groups, especially females aged 12 to 44.
Dialysis and kidney transplantation in Australia: 1991-2010
End-stage kidney disease is a serious and costly health problem in Australia that usually requires kidney replacement therapy (dialysis or kidney transplantation) for patients to survive. At the end of 2009 there were more than 18,000 people receiving kidney replacement therapy. The majority received dialysis treatment, which accounted for more than 1.1 million hospitalisations in the 2009-10 financial year. During 2009 more than 2,300 patients started kidney replacement therapy and 772 kidney transplant operations were performed.
Projections of the incidence of treated end-stage kidney disease among Indigenous Australians, 2009-2020: a working paper with preliminary results
The focus of this working paper is the incidence (number of new cases) of end-stage kidney disease treated with dialysis or transplant (hereafter referred to as treated ESKD), as these treatments are extremely resource intensive. Further, reliable data on the incidence and prevalence of treated ESKD are available from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA), which compiles data from all renal units in Australia.
Chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
This report presents the first detailed analysis of chronic kidney disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people and how it compares to non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous Australians have a greater burden of disease for many health conditions, and chronic kidney disease is no exception. Indigenous Australians were found to be more likely to have end-stage kidney disease, and be hospitalised or die with chronic kidney disease than non-Indigenous Australians.
Projections of the incidence of treated end-stage kidney disease in Australia, 2010-2020
This report presents projections of the incidence of end-stage kidney disease treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation (treated ESKD) for the period 2010 to 2020. This information is important for health service planning and resource allocation in the future. The projections are made by sex at national and state/territory levels, and for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients with diabetes when commencing treatment.The incidence of treated ESKD is projected to continue to rise over the next decade; increasing by nearly 80% between 2009 and 2020. The proportion of those commencing ESKD treatment with diabetes is also expected to increase, from 45% in 2009 to 64% in 2020.
End-stage kidney disease in Australia: total incidence, 2003-2007
The incidence of end-stage kidney disease is an important indicator of the health of the Australian population and valuable for healthcare planning. In the past we have been limited to counting only individuals treated with dialysis or transplant. However it is recognised that many people with end-stage kidney disease might not receive these treatments for a variety of reasons.This report presents a new method for counting the total incidence of end-stage kidney disease which also includes those not treated with dialysis or transplant. This method indicates that for every new case treated with dialysis or transplant there is one that is not, although the vast majority of these are elderly.
Chronic kidney disease hospitalisations in Australia 2000-01 to 2007-08
In 2007-08, chronic kidney disease (CKD) contributed to 15% (nearly 1.2 million) of all hospitalisations in Australia, one million of which were for regular dialysis. Indigenous Australians were hospitalised at 11 times the rate of other Australians for regular dialysis, and at 5 times the rate for other principal and additional CKD diagnoses. Hospitalisations for regular dialysis increased by an average of 60,000 per year between 2000-01 and 2007-08, equating to a 71% increase over this period. Increases of 12% for other principal diagnoses of CKD and 48% for additional diagnoses were also recorded.
Prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: targeting risk factors
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) account for around a quarter of the burden of disease in Australia, and just under two-thirds of all deaths. These three diseases often occur together and share risk factors, such as physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, and high blood pressure. This report includes information on the national prevalence of the main risk factors for CVD, CKD and diabetes as well as population initiatives and individual services that aim to prevent or control these risk factors. It shows the prevalence of some risk factors is increasing-notably obesity, which rose from 11% of adults in 1995 to 24% in 2007-08. This is the first report to present a systematic approach to monitor prevention in Australia, providing a baseline for future monitoring.
Health care expenditure on chronic kidney disease in Australia 2004-05
Chronic kidney disease is a common and serious problem in Australia. Those with the most severe form, end-stage kidney disease, usually require dialysis or a kidney transplant to survive. It is with these resource intensive and technologically advanced treatments that much of the health costs for chronic kidney disease are incurred, with regular dialysis the most common reason for hospitalisation in Australia.Chronic kidney disease contributes substantially to health care expenditure in Australia and is increasing much faster than expenditure on total health care. In 2004-05 it accounted for 1.7% of total expenditure ($898.7 million), an increase of 33% since 2000-01 ($573.6 million).
An overview of chronic kidney disease in Australia, 2009
This report explains what chronic kidney disease is and describes its extent and patterns in the Australian community. Chronic kidney disease contributed to nearly 10% of all deaths in Australia in 2006 and over 1.1 million hospitalisations in 2006-07. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease are highly prevalent in Australia and the number of Australians at risk is increasing. Indigenous Australians in particular are at high risk.
Outline of the National Centre for Monitoring Chronic Kidney Disease
In late 2007 the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare established the National Centre for Monitoring Chronic Kidney Disease. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common chronic disease in Australia. The disease is highly preventable and progression can be slowed by controlling common risk factors and by improving disease treatment and management. The burden of CKD in Australia is expected to rise. Work in this area is critical for improving capacity to assess the health impact of CKD, evaluate progress in disease prevention and management, and therefore provide evidence for developing policy to reduce the associated burden and outcomes for people at risk of or living with CKD. There is considerable potential for health, social and economic gains through CKD monitoring. This report is intended to be a brief outline of the rationale for and role of the National Centre for Monitoring Chronic Kidney Disease. It outlines the rationale behind starting a national monitoring centre, the structure of the centre, key areas of monitoring and major data sources to be used for monitoring.
Comorbidity of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease in Australia
Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease are three common and serious illnesses in Australia. These three diseases have shared common risk factors, and often occur together. The National Centre for Monitoring Cardiovascular Disease and the National Centre for Monitoring Diabetes have collaborated to investigate the association of these diseases and their impact on Australians' health and health systems. This report is the first output of this project, and it focuses on examining the current extent of comorbidity of the conditions from three perspectives: self-reported prevalence, hospitalisation and deaths.
Chronic kidney disease in Australia 2005
Chronic kidney disease has numerous impacts on both individual health and health services. With risk factors that are highly prevalent in Australia, including diabetes and high blood pressure, the number of Australians at risk of chronic kidney disease is increasing. Indigenous Australians in particular are at high risk. Chronic kidney disease may lead to serious illness and death. In severe cases, kidney function may deteriorate to the point where a kidney transplant or dialysis is required for survival. People with chronic kidney disease are also at risk of a range of complications, including cardiovascular disease. However, in many cases chronic kidney disease is preventable and treatable. This report is the first to bring together data from a variety of sources to highlight the impact of chronic kidney disease in Australia. The information within will be relevant to policy makers, the wider community and anyone with an interest in chronic kidney disease.