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Fact sheets are available for 15 leading causes of premature mortality:

Premature mortality fact sheets references

  1. Coronary heart disease
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2014. Trends in coronary heart disease mortality: age groups and populations. Cardiovascular disease series no. 38. Cat. no. CVD 67. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015a. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease-Australian facts: risk factors. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 4. Cat. no. CDK 004. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015b. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • Briffa T, Hickling S, Knuiman M, Hobbs M, Hung J, Sanfilippo FM et al. 2009. Long term survival after evidence based treatment of acute myocardial infarction and revascularisation: follow-up of population based Perth MONICA cohort, 1984-2005. British Medical Journal 338:b36.
  • Department of Health 2015. Cardiovascular disease. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • Fuster V & Kelly B (eds) 2010. Promoting cardiovascular health in the developing world: a critical challenge to achieve global health. Washington DC: National Academies Press.
  • National Heart Foundation of Australia 2015. Cardiovascular conditions. Canberra: Heart Foundation. Viewed 15 June 2015.
  • Taylor R, Dobson A & Mirzaei M 2006. Contribution of changes in risk factors to the decline of coronary heart disease mortality in Australia over three decades. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 13(5):760-08.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) 2008. MPOWER: a policy package to reverse the tobacco epidemic. Geneva: WHO.
  1. Lung cancer
  • ABC News 2014. Key events in anti-tobacco campaign in Australia. Ultimo: ABC. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 2013. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey: first results, Australia, 2012-13. Cat. no. 4727.0. Canberra: ABS.
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2014. National Drug Strategy Household Survey detailed report: 2013. Drug statistics series no. 28. Cat. no. PHE 183. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015a. The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: 2015. Cat. no. IHW 147. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015b. Tobacco smoking in the general population. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 14 May 2015.
  • Doll R & Hill A 1950. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung. British Medical Journal 30:739-48.
  • Doll R, Peto R, Wheatley K, Gray R & Sutherland I 1994. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observations on male British doctors. British Medical Journal 309:901-11.
  • Gray, NJ & Hill DJ 1975. Patterns of tobacco smoking in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 2 (22):819-22.
  • Hammond EC 1966. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. National Cancer Institute Monograph 19:127-204.
  • Intergovernmental Committee on Drugs 2012. National Tobacco Strategy 2012-2018. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing.
  • Magnusson RS & Colagiuri R 2008. The law and chronic disease prevention: possibilities and politics. Medical Journal of Australia 188(2):105-04.
  • McLaughlin J, Hrubec Z, Blot W & Fraumeni J 1995. Smoking and cancer mortality among U.S. veterans: a 26-year follow-up. International Journal of Cancer 60:190-03.
  • NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) 2004. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and management of lung cancer. Sydney: Cancer Council Australia.
  • Royal College of Physicians 1962. Smoking and health: summary of a report of the Royal College of Physicians on smoking in relation to cancer of the lung and other diseases. London: Pitman Medical Publishing Co. Ltd.
  • Scollo MM & Winstanley MH (eds) 2015. Chapter 13.2: Tobacco taxes in Australia. in Tobacco in Australia 2015. Melbourne: Cancer Council Victoria. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) 2014. Raising tax on tobacco: what you need to know. Geneva: WHO.
  1. Suicide
  • AIHW 2015. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • AIHW: Closing the Gap Clearinghouse 2013. Strategies to minimise the incidence of suicide and suicidal behaviour. Resource sheet no. 18. Cat. no. IHW 83. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW: Harrison JE & Henley G 2014. Suicide and hospitalised self-harm in Australia: trends and analysis. Injury research and statistics series no. 93. Cat. no. INJCAT 169. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW: Harrison JE & Henley G 2015. Injury deaths data, Australia: technical report on issues associated with reporting for reference years 1999-2010. Injury research and statistics series no. 94. Cat. no. INJCAT 170. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW: Henley G & Harrison JE 2015. Trends in injury deaths, Australia 1999-00 to 2009­-10. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIC (Australian Institute of Criminology) 2012. Firearm trafficking and serious and organised crime gangs: legislative reforms. Griffith ACT: AIC. Viewed 15 May 2015.
  • beyondblue 2015. Suicide prevention. Hawthorne West, Victoria: beyondblue. Viewed 20 April 2015.
  • Department of Health 2012. Improving safety at 'hotspots': grant guidelines 2011-2014. Canberra: Department of Health.
  • Department of Health 2014. National suicide prevention strategy. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 20 April 2015.
  • Fleischmann A & Bertolote JM 2003. Suicidal behaviour in a global public health perspective. International Journal of Mental Health 32(1):67-78.
  • headspace 2015. School support: identifying risk factors and warning signs for suicide. Melbourne: headspace. Viewed .
  • Kleiman EM & Liu RT 2013. Social support as a protective factor in suicide: findings from two nationally representative samples. Journal of Affective Disorders 150(2):540-45.
  • Lifeline 2015. Media fast facts. Deakin ACT: Lifeline. Viewed 20 April 2015.
  • Melvin GA, Posner K, Stanley BH & Oquendo MA 2015. Management of the suicidal patient. In: Tasman A, Kay J,  Lieberman JA,  First MB & Riba MB (eds) Psychiatry, 4th edn. Chichester UK: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Sarchiapone M, Mandelli L, Iosue M, Andrisano C & Roy A 2011. Controlling access to suicide means. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 8(12):4550-62.
  • Senate Community Affairs References Committee 2010. The hidden toll: suicide in Australia. Canberra: Parliament of Australia.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) 2006. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), second edition. Geneva: WHO.
  • WHO 2014. Preventing suicide: a global imperative. Geneva: WHO.
  • WHO 2015. Suicide. Viewed 15 May 2015.

  • Yip PSF, Caine E, Yousuf S, Chang S-S, Wu KC-C & Chen Y-Y 2012. Means restriction for suicide prevention. Lancet 379(9834):2393-99.
  1. Colorectal cancer
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2014. Analysis of bowel cancer outcomes for the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. Cat. no. CAN 87. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015a. Bowel cancer (colorectal cancer). Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 29 April 2015.
  • AIHW 2015b. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • AIHW 2015c. National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: monitoring report 2013-14. Cancer series no. 94. Cat. no. CAN 92. Canberra: AIHW.
  • Ananda SS, McLaughlin SJ, Chen F, Hayes IP, Hunter AA, Skinner IJ et al. 2009. Initial impact of Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. Medical Journal of Australia 191(7):378-81.
  • André T, Boni C, Mounedji-Boudiaf L, Navarro M, Tabernero J, Hickish T et al. 2004. Oxaliplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as adjuvant treatment for colon cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 350(23):2343-51.
  • APHDPCSS (Australian Population Health Development Principal Committee Screening Subcommittee) 2008. Population based screening framework. Canberra: Department of Health.
  • Bowel Cancer Australia 2014. Bowel cancer: risk factors. North Sydney: Bowel Cancer Australia. Viewed 10 June 2015.
  • Chabner DE 2001. The language of medicine. 6th edition. St Louis: WB Saunders Company.
  • Department of Health 2014. National bowel cancer screening program. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 31 July 2015.
  • Sermeus A, Leonard W, Engels B & De Ridder M 2014. Advances in radiotherapy and targeted therapies for rectal cancer. World Journal of Gastroenterology 20(1):1-5.
  • Vogelaar I, van Ballegooijen M, Schrag D, Boer R, Winawer S, Habbema J et al. 2006. How much can current interventions reduce colorecal cancer mortality in the U.S.? Mortality projections for scenarios of risk-factor modification, screening, and treatment. Cancer 107(7):1624-33.
  • WCRF (World Cancer Research Fund) & AICR (American Institute for Cancer Research) 2011. Continuous update project report. Food, nutrition, physical activity, and the prevention of colorectal cancer. London: World Cancer Research Fund. Viewed 10 August 2015.
  • Weitz J, Koch M, Debus J, Hohler T, Galle PR & Buchler MW 2005. Colorectal cancer. Lancet 365 (9454):153-65.
  1. Cerebrovascular disease
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2013. Stroke and its management in Australia: an update. Cardiovascular disease series no. 37. Cat. no. CVD 61. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2014. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: Australian facts mortality. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 1. Cat. no. CDK 1. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015a. Cardiovascular, diabetes and kidney: Australian facts: risk factors module. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015b. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • Department of Health, Western Australia, 2012. WA Health Promotion Strategic Framework 2012-2016. Perth: Chronic Disease Prevention Directorate, Department of Health, Western Australia.
  • Lackland DT, Roccella EJ, Deutsch AF, Fornage M, George MG, Howard G et al. 2014. Factors influencing the decline in stroke mortality: a statement from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 45(1):315-53.
  • National Heart Foundation 2010. Guide to management of hypertension 2008. Updated December 2010. Melbourne: National Heart Foundation of Australia.
  • National Stroke Foundation 2010. Clinical guidelines for stroke management. Melbourne: National Stroke Foundation.
  • National Stroke Foundation 2015. Early treatment after a stroke. Melbourne: National Stroke Foundation. Viewed 24 April 2015. 
  • NSW Ministry of Health 2013. NSW Healthy eating and active living strategy: preventing overweight and obesity in New South Wales 2013-2018. North Sydney: NSW Ministry of Health
  • OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 2013. Health at a glance 2013: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  1. Breast cancer
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2012. Breast cancer in Australia: an overview. Cancer series no. 71. Cat. no. CAN 67. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2014. Cancer in Australia: an overview 2014. Cancer series no. 90. Cat. no. CAN 88. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • AIHW & NBCC (National Breast Cancer Centre) 2007. Breast cancer survival by size and nodal status. Cancer series no. 39. Cat. no. CAN 34. Canberra: AIHW.
  • Baade PD, Meng X, Sinclair C & Youl P 2012. Estimating the future burden of cancers preventable by better diet and physical activity in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia 195(5):337-40.
  • BreastScreen Australia 2015a. About breast screening. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 23 April 2015.
  • BreastScreen Australia 2015b. Brochure-BreastScreen Australia Campaign. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 23 April 2015.
  • Chabner DE 2001. The language of medicine. 6th edition. St Louis: WB Saunders Company.
  • Coldman A, Phillips N, Wilson C, Decker K, Chairelli AM, Brisoon J et al. 2014. Pan-Canadian study of mammography screening and mortality from breast cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 106(11).
  • Department of Health 2015. Media release: New campaign to boost early breast cancer detection. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 23 April 2015.
  • NBOCC (National Breast and Ovarian Cancer Centre) 2009. National Breast and Ovarian
  • Cancer Centre and Royal Australasian College of Surgeons National Breast Cancer audit. Public Health Monitoring Series 2007 data. Sydney: NBOCC.
  1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
  • ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) News 2014. Key events in anti-tobacco campaign in Australia. Sydney: ABC. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • Abramson M, Crockett AJ, Dabsceck E, Frith PA, George J, Glasgow N et al. on behalf of Lung Foundation Australia and the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand 2014. The COPD-X Plan: Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for the management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease V2.39.
  • Adair T, Hoy D, Dettrick Z & Lopez A 2012. 100 years of mortality due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Australia: the role of tobacco consumption. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 16(12):1699-705.
  • AIHW 2014. National Drug Strategy Household Survey detailed report: 2013. Drug statistics series no. 28. Cat. no. PHE 183. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015a. Chronic diseases summary. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 27 April 2015.
  • AIHW 2015b. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • AIHW, Poulos LM, Cooper SJ, Ampon R, Reddel HK and Marks GB 2014. Mortality from asthma and COPD in Australia. Cat. no. ACM 30. Canberra: AIHW.
  • Dunt D & Doyle C 2012. Signs of progress in the Australian post-2000 COPD experience, but some old problems remain. International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 7:357-66.
  • Intergovernmental Committee on Drugs 2012. National Tobacco Strategy 2012-2018. Canberra: Department of Health and Ageing. 
  • Magnusson R & Colagiuri R 2008. The law and chronic disease prevention: possibilities and politics. Medical Journal of Australia 188(2):104-05.
  • National Asthma Council Australia 2015. Asthma and COPD. South Melbourne: National Asthma Council Australia. Viewed 30 April 2015.
  • NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) 2004. Clinical practice guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and management of lung cancer. Canberra: NHMRC.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) 2014. Raising tax on tobacco: what you need to know. Geneva: WHO.
  • Zwar N, Marks GB, Hermiz O, Middleton S, Comino EJ, Hasan I et al. 2011. Predictors of accuracy of diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in general practice. Medical Journal of Australia 195(4):168-71.
  1. Land transport accidents
  • ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 2001. Year book Australia 2001. ABS cat. no. 1301.0. Canberra: ABS.
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2015. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015, <http://meteor.aihw.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/559036>.
  • AIHW: Harrison J & Henley G 2015. Injury deaths data, Australia: technical report on issues associated with reporting for reference years 1999-2010. Injury research and statistics series no. 94. Cat. no. INJCAT 170. Canberra: AIHW.
  • Australian Centre for Agricultural Health and Safety 2014. Child safety on farms. Moree NSW: Australian Centre for Agricultural Health and Safety. Viewed 7 May 2015.
  • ATC (Australian Transport Council) 2011. National Road Safety Strategy 2011-2020. Canberra: Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development.
  • BITRE (Bureau of Infrastructure, Transport and Regional Economics) 2010. Effectiveness of measures to reduce road fatality rates. Canberra: Department of Infrastructure and Transport.
  • Milne P 1985. Fitting and wearing of seat belts in Australia: the history of a successful countermeasure. Canberra: Department of Transport.
  • Transport and Infrastructure Council 2014. National road safety action plan 2015-2017. Canberra: Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development.
  • Woolley J 2005. Recent advantages of lower speed limits in Australia. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies 6:3562-73.
  1. Liver disease
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2013. The health of Australia's prisoners 2012: report profile. Cat. no. PHE 171. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2014. Mortality and life expectancy of Indigenous Australians 2008 to 2012. Cat. no. IHW 140. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • Canadian Liver Foundation 2015. Liver disease. Markham Ontario: Canadian Liver Foundation. Viewed 8 May 2015.
  • Department of Health 2015a. Alcohol. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 8 May 2015.
  • Department of Health 2015b. Fourth National Hepatitis C Strategy 2014-2017. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 10 July 2015.
  • Duggan AE & Duggan JM 2011. Alcoholic liver disease-assessment and management. Australian Family Physician 40(8):590-93.
  • Gastroenterological Society of Australia 2015. Liver. Mulgrave Victoria: Gastroenterological Society of Australia. Viewed 7 May 2015.
  • Liang W, Chikritzhs T, Pascal R & Binns CW 2011. Mortality rate of alcoholic liver disease and risk of hospitalization for alcoholic liver cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic liver failure in Australia between 1993 and 2005. Internal Medicine Journal 41:34-41.
  • NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) 2009. Australian guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol. Canberra: NHMRC.
  • O'Brien S, Day C, Black E, Thetford C & Dolan K 2007. Injecting drug users' understanding of Hepatitis C. Sydney: National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre.
  • Smart RG & Mann RE 1992. Alcohol and the epidemiology of liver cirrhosis. Alcohol Health & Research World 16(3):217-22.
  • Strasser S 2013. Hepatocellular carcinoma: the most rapidly rising cause of cancer death in Australia. Medicine Today 14(12):55-57.
  1. Diabetes
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2014a. Australia's health 2014. Australia's health series no. 14. Cat. no. AUS 178. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2014b. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: Australian facts mortality. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 1. Cat. no. CDK 1. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2014c. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: Australian facts: prevalence and incidence. Cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic kidney disease series no. 2. Cat. no. CDK 02. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 2011. Successes and opportunities for population-based prevention and control at a glance 2011. Atlanta: CDC. Viewed 1 September 2015.
  • Department of Health 2015. Diabetes. Canberra: Department of Health. Viewed 19 May 2015.
  • Knowler W, Barret-Connor E, Fowler S, RF H, JM L & Walker E 2002. Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. New England Journal of Medicine 346:393-403.
  • Pan XR, Li GW, Hu Y, Wang JX, Yang WY, An ZX et al. 1997. Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance. The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 20(4):537-44.
  • Ramachandran A, Snehalatha C, Mary S, Mukesh B, Bhaskar AD & Vijay V 2006. The Indian Diabetes Prevention Programme shows that lifestyle modification and metformin prevent type 2 diabetes in Asian Indian subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IDPP-1). Diabetologia 49(2):289-97.
  • Tuomilehto J, Lindstrom J, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P et al. 2011. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group: Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. New England Journal of Medicine 344(18):1343-50.
  • Twigg SM & Wong J 2015. The imperative to prevent diabetes complications: a broadening spectrum and an increasing burden despite improved outcomes. Medical Journal of Australia 202(6):300-04.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) 2015. Diabetes. Fact sheet no. 312. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 1 May 2015, <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/>.
  1. Accidental poisoning
  • AIHW 2015a. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015, <http://meteor.aihw.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/559036>.
  • AIHW 2015b. Trends in injury deaths, Australia 1999-00 to 2009-10. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW: Harrison JE & Henley G 2015. Injury deaths data, Australia: technical report on issues associated with reporting for reference years 1999-2010. Injury research and statistics series no. 94. Cat. no. INJCAT. 170. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW: Pointer S 2013. Trends in hospitalised injury, Australia: 1999-00 to 2010-11. Injury research and statistics series 86. Cat. no. INJCAT 162. Canberra: AIHW.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) 2015. Poisons. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 4 August 2015, <http://www.who.int/topics/poisons/en/>.
  1. Melanoma
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2015. METeOR (Metadata Online ). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015, <http://meteor.aihw.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/559036>.
  • Australian Cancer Network Melanoma Guidelines Revision Working Party 2008. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of melanoma in Australia and New Zealand: evidence-based best practice guidelines. Cancer Council Australia and Australian Cancer Network. Cancer Council Australia and Australian Cancer Network, Sydney and New Zealand Guidelines Group, Wellington.
  • Cancer Council Australia 2014. Media release: teens tone down tanning 10 years on. Sydney: Cancer Council Australia. Viewed 17 June 2015, <http://www.cancer.org.au/content/pdf/News/MediaReleases/2014/17%2011%2014%20NSCAW%20media%20release%202014.pdf>.
  • Cancer Council Australia 2015. Melanoma. Sydney: Cancer Council Australia. Viewed 8 May 2015, <http://www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/types-of-cancer/skin-cancer/melanoma.html>.
  • Cancer Council New South Wales 2014. Commerical solariums (sunbeds) are banned in NSW. 2015. Woolloomooloo: Cancer Council NSW. Viewed 8 May, <http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/60644/reduce-risks/sun-protection/tips-for-being-be-sunsmart/solariums-be-sunsmart/solariums-to-be-banned-in-nsw/>.
  • Cancer Institute New South Wales 2015. The dark side of tanning. Eveleigh, NSW: Cancer Institute New South Wales. Viewed 8 May 2015, <http://www.darksideoftanning.com.au/campaign/campaign.aspx>.
  • Melanoma Institute Australia 2015. Understanding melanoma. Wollstonecraft NSW: Melanoma Institute Australia. Viewed 8 May 2015, <http://www.melanoma.org.au/understanding-melanoma/>.
  • Tracey E, Baker D, Chen W, Stavrou E & Bishop J 2007. Cancer in New South Wales: incidence, mortality and prevalence 2005. Sydney: Cancer Institute NSW.
  1. Prostate cancer
  • AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2013. Prostate cancer in Australia. Cancer series no. 79. Cat. no. CAN 76. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015a. Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality (ACIM) books. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW 2015b. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015, <http://meteor.aihw.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/559036>.
  • Alam N, You H, Banks C, Baker D & Bishop J 2009. Prostate cancer in New South Wales. Sydney: Cancer Institute NSW.
  • Boyle P & Levin B (eds) 2008. World cancer report 2008. Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
  • Etzioni R, Tsodikov A, Mariotto A, Szabo A, Falcon S, Wegelin J et al. 2008. Quantifying the role of PSA screening in the US prostate cancer mortality decline. Cancer Causes Control 19(2):175-81.
  • Feletto E, Bang A, Cole-Clark D, Chalasani V, Rasiah K & Smith DP 2015. An examination of prostate cancer trends in Australia, England, Canada and USA: Is the Australian death rate too high? World Journal of Urology (epublication ahead of printing).
  • NHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council) 2003. Clinical practice guidelines: evidence-based information and recommendations for the management of localised prostate cancer. Canberra: NHMRC.
  • NHMRC 2014. PSA testing for prostate cancer in asymptomatic men: information for health practitioners. Canberra: NHMRC.
  • Orde MM, Whitaker NJ & Lawson JS 2009. High prevalence of prostatic neoplasia in Australian men. Pathology 41(5):433-35.
  1. Assault
  • AIHW 2015. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015, <http://meteor.aihw.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/559036>.
  • AIHW: Harrison JE & Henley G 2015. Injury deaths data, Australia: technical report on issues associated with reporting for reference years 1999-2010. Injury research and statistics series no. 94. Cat. no. INJCAT 170. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIHW: Henley G & Harrison JE 2015. Trends in injury deaths, Australia 1999-00 to 2009-10. Canberra: AIHW.
  • AIC (Australian Institute of Criminology): Bryant & Cussen 2015. Homicide in Australia: 2010-11 to 2011-12: National Homicide Monitoring Program report. AIC Reports. Monitoring Reports 23. Griffith ACT: AIC.
  • Department of Social Services 2014. Second Action Plan 2013-2016 - Moving Ahead - of the National Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children 2010-2022. Canberra: Department of Social Services.
  • Liem MCA & Pridemore WA (eds) 2012. Handbook of European homicide research: patterns, explanations and country studies. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) 2006. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10), second edition. Geneva: WHO.
  • WHO 2010. Violence prevention: the evidence. Geneva: WHO.
  1. Accidental drowning
  • AIHW 2015. METeOR (Metadata Online Registry). National Healthcare Agreement: PI 16-Potentially avoidable deaths, 2015. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 15 April 2015.
  • AIHW: Harrison JE & Henley G 2015. Injury deaths data, Australia: technical report on issues associated with reporting for reference years 1999-2010. Injury research and statistics series no. 94. Cat. no. INJCAT. 170. Canberra: AIHW.
  • Australian Water Safety Council 2012. Australian water safety strategy 2012-15: towards a nation free from drowning. Sydney: Australian Water Safety Council.
  • Kennedy DM, Sherker S, Brighton B, Weir A & Woodrofe CD 2013. Rocky coast hazards and public safety: moving beyond the beach in coastal risk management. Ocean and Coastal Management 82:85-94.
  • Royal Life Saving Society Australia 2014. National drowning report 2014. Royal Life Saving Society Australia.
  • Surf Life Saving Australia 2014. National coastal safety report 2014. Sydney: Surf Life Saving Australia.
  • Thompson DC & Rivara FP 2000. Pool fencing for preventing drowning in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000(2):CD001047.
  • van Beeck EF, Branche CM, Szpilman D, Modell JH & Bierens JJLM 2005. A new definition of drowning: towards documentation and prevention of a global public health problem. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 83:853-56.
  • WHO (World Health Organization) 2014. Drowning. Geneva: WHO. Fact sheet no. 347. Viewed 8 May 2015.