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Type 2 diabetes in Australia's children and young people: a working paper

Type 2 diabetes in Australia's children and young people identifies and describes national data sources to monitor incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes in children and young people and assesses their suitability for this task. This working paper also presents, for the first time, national incidence and prevalence estimates of type 2 diabetes in Australia's children and young people.

Australia's mothers and babies 2011

In 2011, 297,126 women gave birth to 301,810 babies in Australia. This was an increase of 2,247 births (0.8%) than reported in 2010, and a total increase of 18.3% since 2002. Nationally, the proportion of teenage mothers (younger than 20) declined from 3.9% in 2010 to 3.7% in 2011, compared with 4.9% in 2002.

Monitoring pulmonary rehabilitation and long-term oxygen therapy for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of death and disability in Australia. While pulmonary rehabilitation and long term oxygen therapy are recommended treatments for COPD, there is currently no national information about the supply and use of these therapies. This report outlines a proposed approach to monitoring access to, and utilisation of, these therapies, by capitalising on existing data sources and identifying data development opportunities.

The inclusion of Indigenous status on pathology request forms

Under the National Indigenous Reform Agreement in 2008, the Council of Australian Government agreed to data quality improvements which are focussed on improving Indigenous identification in key data sets. This report outlines work towards the inclusion of Indigenous status on pathology request forms as a way to improve Indigenous identification in national cancer, communicable disease and cervical screening registries.

Smoking and quitting smoking among prisoners 2012

This bulletin presents results from the 2012 National Prisoner Health Data Collection, focusing on smoking and smoking cessation behaviours of prisoners in Australia. In 2012, 84% of prison entrants were current smokers, which is around 5 times the proportion of the general community. Quitting smoking in prison is difficult: 35% of prisoners who were about to be released tried to quit during their time in prison, but only 8% were successful.

Chronic kidney disease: regional variation in Australia

Chronic kidney disease is a common and serious problem in Australia and its management can be resource intensive, particularly for the most severe form of the disease: end-stage kidney disease. Rates of chronic kidney disease vary by geographic location.This report shows:people from Remote and very remote areas were 2.2 times more likely to die from chronic kidney disease than people from Major cities.people from Very remote areas were at least 4 times more likely to start kidney replacement therapy (dialysis or kidney transplant) than people from non-remote areas.

Asthma hospitalisations in Australia 2010-11

This report provides an overview of hospitalisation patterns over time and across population groups. Asthma hospitalisation rates decreased between 1998-99 and 2010-11, by 33% for children and 45% for adults. The rate of hospitalisation for asthma among Indigenous Australians was 2.1 times the rate for Other Australians. Asthma hospitalisation rates were also higher for people living in areas with lower socioeconomic status.

The health of Australia's males: 25 years and over

This report is the fourth in a series on the health of Australia's males. It continues and completes the life course by focusing on males aged 25 and over.Findings include:-Males aged 25 and over in 2011 can expect, on average, to live to 80 or over.-One in 10 males aged 50-59 (11%) and 60-69 (10%) are, on a daily basis, at risk of injury resulting from excessive alcohol Employed -males are less likely to rate their health as fair or poor (11%) compared with unemployed males (37%) and males not in the labour force (41%).

The health of Australia's males: from birth to young adulthood (0-24 years)

This report is the third in a series on the health of Australia's males, and focuses on health conditions and risk factors that are age-specific (such as congenital anomalies) and those where large sex differences are observed (such as injury).Findings include:- Male babies born in 2009-2011 can expect to live to the age of 79.7, nearly 5 years less than female babies born the same year (84.2).- While males aged 0-24 are more likely to be hospitalised or die from injury than females of the same age, they are similarly likely to be overweight or obese and less likely to smoke tobacco daily.

The health of Australia's prisoners 2012

Prisoners have significant health issues, with high rates of mental health problems, communicable diseases, alcohol misuse, smoking and illicit drug use. 38% of prison entrants have ever been told they have a mental illness, 32% have a chronic condition. 84% are current smokers, but almost half of them would like to quit. 37% of prisoners about to be released said their health was a lot better than when they entered prison.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2012: detailed analyses

This report provides the latest information on how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are faring according to a range of indicators on health status, determinants of health and health system performance that are based on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework. It highlights the main areas of improvement and continuing concern. For example, while death rates for avoidable causes and circulatory diseases have declined since 1997, more than half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers smoke during pregnancy and about one-quarter of Indigenous Australians aged 15 and over live in overcrowded housing.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2012 report: Australian Capital Territory

This report provides the latest information on how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are faring according to a range of indicators on health status, determinants or health and health system performance. Indicators are based on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework. The report highlights the main areas of improvement and continuing concern. For example, death rates for avoidable causes and circulatory diseases have declined since 1997, but over half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers smoke during pregnancy and about one-quarter of Indigenous Australians aged 15 years and over live in overcrowded housing.

Incontinence in Australia

This report details the number of people who experienced severe incontinence in 2009, according to the Australian Bureau of Statistics' Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers.  It includes estimates of prevalence rates and total expenditure on incontinence, as well as the number of primary carers of people suffering from the condition. It also updates data development since the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare's 2006 incontinence report.

A snapshot of rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis is the most severe form of arthritis, affecting around 2% of Australians. Even though management of the condition has improved markedly in recent years,  largely because of the availability of new medicines, people with rheumatoid arthritis are more likely than those without the condition to report severe pain, poor health status and psychological distress. The size of indirect costs associated with rheumatoid arthritis,  such as productivity losses and the cost for carers, are currently unknown.

Geographic distribution of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease hospitalisations in Australia: 2007-08 to 2009-10

This report investigates how hospitalisation rates for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) vary across Australia. Maps in the report show higher hospitalisation rates for both asthma and COPD in inland and rural areas of Australia. Socioeconomic status, remoteness and the proportion of the population that identifies as Indigenous all have a significant association with the hospitalisation rates for asthma and COPD by area.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2012 report: Western Australia

This report provides the latest information on how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Western Australia are faring according to a range of indicators on health status, determinants of health and health system performance. Indicators are based on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework. The report highlights the main areas of improvement and continuing concern. For example, while death rates for avoidable causes and circulatory diseases have declined since 1997, about half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers smoke during pregnancy and there has been no improvement in incidence rates of treated end-stage renal disease in recent years.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2012 report: New South Wales

This report provides the latest information on how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in New South Wales are faring according to a range of indicators on health status, determinants of health and health system performance. Indicators are based on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework. The report highlights the main areas of improvement and continuing concern. For example, death rates for avoidable causes and circulatory diseases have declined since 2001, but almost half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers smoke during pregnancy and unemployment rates continue to remain higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2012 report: South Australia

This report provides the latest information on how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in South Australia are faring according to a range of indicators on health status, determinants of health and health system performance. Indicators are based on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework. The report highlights the main areas of improvement and continuing. For example, while death rates for Indigenous infants and Indigenous people of all ages have declined since 1991, more than half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers smoke during pregnancy and unemployment rates continue to remain higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2012 report: Victoria

This report provides the latest information on how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Victoria are faring according to a range of indicators on health status, determinants of health and health system performance. Indicators are based on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework. The report highlights the main areas of improvement and continuing concern. For example, while health assessments have increased significantly and immunisation coverage for Indigenous children is similar to non-Indigenous children by the age of 2, the incidence of treated end-stage renal disease is 4 times the rate for non-Indigenous Australians and unemployment rates continue to remain higher for Indigenous people than for non-Indigenous people.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework 2012 report: Queensland

This report provides the latest information on how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in Queensland are faring according to a range of indicators on health status, determinants of health and health system performance. Indicators are based on the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework. The report highlights the main areas of improvement and continuing. For example, while death rates for avoidable causes and circulatory diseases have declined since 2001, just over half of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers smoke during pregnancy and there has been no improvement in incidence rates of treated end-stage renal disease in recent years.

Australian hospital statistics: national emergency access and elective surgery targets 2012

This report presents 2012 data for performance indicators related to emergency department lengths of stay of 4 hours or less and lengths of time spent waiting for elective surgery, specified in the National Partnership Agreement on Improving Public Hospital Services (NPA-IPHS). The AIHW has provided data in this report to the Council of Australian Governments Reform Council for them to determine state and territory performance against agreed targets under the NPA-IPHS.

A snapshot of juvenile arthritis

This snapshot brings together the latest information on juvenile arthritis, a relatively uncommon condition affecting less than 1% of Australian children. Limited national statistics make it difficult to evaluate the full extent of the effects of this condition on the children and those who care for them. However, available data show that Australian Government subsidies for new classes of treatment medications have continually increased since their introduction in 2002-03 and hospitalisation rates for girls with juvenile arthritis have increased in the 10 years to 2009-10. The reasons for this latter increase are not yet clear.

Vaccination uptake among people with chronic respiratory disease

Research has shown that vaccinations against influenza and pneumococcal infection can benefit people with obstructive airways disease, which includes asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This report reviews the limited information available in Australia on how many people with asthma and COPD have the vaccination, and finds that the uptake rate is not as high as would be expected if recommendations were being followed.It presents a range of data improvement options that would enhance our ability to monitor vaccination uptake in this and other at-risk population groups.

Medications prescribed for people with obstructive airways disease: antibiotics and inhaled corticosteroids

Appropriate use of medications is important in maximising health benefits for patients, minimising the negative effects of medications, and controlling health costs. This report focuses on the appropriate use of certain medications for the management of obstructive airways disease, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Data in this report suggest that antibiotics are commonly used among patients with asthma and COPD, and that supply patterns for inhaled corticosteroids are often not consistent with treatment guidelines for the management of these conditions.

Food for thought: what do short questions on food habits tell us about dietary intakes?

Short questions on food habits, such as 'How many serves of fruit do you usually eat each day?' are often used to assess dietary behaviours. This report presents analysis of the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey to assess how well responses to short questions compare with more comprehensive tools, such as keeping a diary of all food eaten over two 24-hour periods. Results show that short questions may be a reasonable proxy for type of milk usually consumed and a reasonable approximation of fruit and vegetable intake, but are of limited value for predicting sodium or iodine intakes.

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