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released: 18 Oct 2011 author: Australian Centre for Asthma Monitoring media release

Asthma is an important health problem in Australia. This report brings together data from a wide range of sources to describe the current status of asthma in Australia. It includes information on the number of people who have asthma and who visit their general practitioner, are hospitalised or die due to asthma. Time trends and profiles of people who receive various treatments for asthma are also presented, along with information on those who have written asthma action plans. In addition, comorbidities and quality of life among people with asthma are also investigated. This report also includes a chapter that focuses on chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases in Australians aged 55 years and over.

ISSN 1448-7594; ISBN 978-1-74249-215-5; Cat. no. ACM 22; 291pp.; Internet only

Publication

Publication table of contents

  • Preliminary material
    • Title and verso pages
    • Contents
    • Acknowledgments
    • Key messages
    • Executive summary
  • Body section
    • 1. Introduction
      • Key points
      • What is asthma?
        • Diagnosis of asthma
        • Classification of asthma
      • The impact of asthma in Australia
      • Overview of this report
    • 2. Prevalence, incidence and natural history
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 2.1 Incidence and natural history of asthma
      • 2.2 Prevalence of ever-diagnosed asthma
      • 2.3 Prevalence of current asthma
      • 2.4 Time trends in the prevalence of asthma
      • 2.5 International comparisons
      • 2.6 Population subgroups
        • 2.6.1 Age and sex
        • 2.6.2 States and territories
        • 2.6.3 Cities, regions and remote areas
        • 2.6.4 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
        • 2.6.5 Country of birth
        • 2.6.6 Socioeconomic status
      • 2.7 Comorbid conditions among people with asthma
      • Summary
    • 3. Asthma control and quality of life
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 3.1 Asthma control
        • 3.1.1 Symptom frequency and severity
        • 3.1.2 Sleep disturbance attributed to asthma
      • 3.2 Asthma-related quality of life
        • 3.2.1 Impact of asthma on self-assessed health status
        • 3.2.2 Impact of asthma on the domains of health-related quality of life
      • Summary
    • 4. Mortality
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 4.1 Time trends in asthma deaths
      • 4.2 International comparisons
      • 4.3 Population subgroups
        • 4.3.1 Age and sex
        • 4.3.2 States and territories
        • 4.3.3 Cities, regions and remote areas
        • 4.3.4 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
        • 4.3.5 Country of birth
        • 4.3.6 Socioeconomic status
      • 4.4 Seasonal variation in mortality risk
      • 4.5 Comorbidities in people who died from asthma
      • 4.6 Asthma as an associated cause of death in deaths attributed to other underlying causes
      • Summary
    • 5. Use of health services
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 5.1 General practice encounters for asthma
        • 5.1.1 International comparisons
        • 5.1.2 Time trends
        • 5.1.3 Population subgroups
        • 5.1.4 Practice Incentives Program: Asthma Cycle of Care
        • 5.1.5 Claims for completed Asthma Cycles of Care in population subgroups
        • 5.1.6 Asthma procedures, treatments and referrals in general practice
      • 5.2 Hospitalisations and emergency department visits
        • 5.2.1 Emergency department visits
        • 5.2.2 Hospitalisations
        • 5.2.3 Comorbidities in patients admitted to hospital with asthma
      • 5.3 Invasive mechanical ventilation
        • 5.3.1 Time trends
        • 5.3.2 Population subgroups
      • 5.4 Health-care expenditure due to asthma
        • 5.4.1 Expenditure by health sector
        • 5.4.2 Other economic impacts of asthma
      • Summary
    • 6. Management
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 6.1 Written asthma action plans
        • 6.1.1 Possession of written asthma action plans
        • 6.1.2 Time trends
        • 6.1.3 Population subgroups
      • 6.2 Medications used to treat asthma
        • 6.2.1 Monitoring medication use
        • 6.2.2 Sources of data
        • 6.2.3 Time trends in the supply of medications for asthma and other respiratory disorders
        • 6.2.4 Current use of medications for asthma
        • Summary
    • 7. Smoking and occupational exposures as risk factors for asthma
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 7.1 People with asthma who smoke
        • 7.1.1 Prevalence
        • 7.1.2 Population subgroups
      • 7.2 Passive smoke exposure in children with asthma
        • 7.2.1 Exposure to passive smoke
      • 7.3 Occupational asthma
        • 7.3.1 Current surveillance
        • 7.3.2 Prevalence
        • 7.3.3 Incidence
        • 7.3.4 Improving surveillance
      • Summary
    • 8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in people aged 55 years and over
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 8.1 Prevalence
        • 8.1.1 Trends in COPD prevalence
        • 8.1.2 Age and sex
        • 8.1.3 Cities, regions and remote areas
      • 8.2 Mortality
        • 8.2.1 Time trends in COPD and asthma deaths
        • 8.2.2 International comparison
        • 8.2.3 Age and sex
      • 8.3 Use of health services
        • 8.3.1 General practice encounters for COPD and asthma
        • 8.3.2 Emergency department visits
        • 8.3.3 Hospitalisations
        • 8.3.4 Assisted ventilation
        • 8.3.5 Comorbidities in patients admitted to hospital with COPD
      • 8.4 Management and care
        • 8.4.1 Use of medication for COPD
        • 8.4.2 Long-term home oxygen therapy
        • 8.4.3 Pulmonary rehabilitation
      • 8.5 Smoking
        • 8.5.1 People with COPD who smoke
        • 8.5.2 Smoking cessation
      • Summary
  • End matter
    • Appendixes
      • Appendix 1: Data sources, definitions and population groups
        • A1.1 Analysis methods
          • A1.1.1 Rates
          • A1.1.2 Trends in rates
          • A1.1.3 Confidence intervals
          • A1.1.4 Tests of statistical significance and association
        • A1.2 Asthma definitions used for measuring prevalence
        • A1.3 BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) and SAND (Supplementary Analysis of Nomina
          • A1.3.1 BEACH data
          • A1.3.2 SAND data
        • A1.4 Emergency department data
          • A1.4.1 Comparability factors for emergency department data
          • A1.4.2 Limitations of emergency department data
        • A1.5 Expenditure data
          • A1.5.1 Expenditure for admitted patients
          • A1.5.2 Out-of-hospital medical services expenditure
          • A1.5.3 Prescription pharmaceuticals expenditure
          • A1.5.4 Other costs
          • A1.5.5 Limitations of expenditure data
        • A1.6 Health survey data
          • A1.6.1 National Health Survey
          • A1.6.2 National Health Survey (Indigenous)
          • A1.6.3 State/territory CATI surveys
        • A1.7 Longitudinal studies
          • A1.7.1 Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC)
          • A1.7.2 Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC)
        • A1.8 Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) statistics
          • A1.8.1 Asthma Cycle of Care (formerly the Asthma 3+ Visit Plan) Practice Incentive Program
        • A1.9 Medication data
          • A1.9.1 IMS Health pharmaceutical data
          • A1.9.2 Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data
          • A1.9.3 Calculation of defined daily dose per 1,000 population per day
        • A1.10 Hospital data
          • A1.10.1 Limitations of the National Hospital Morbidity Database
          • A1.10.2 Hospital diagnosis codes
          • A1.10.3 Definitions of comorbid conditions
          • A1.10.4 Mechanical ventilation
        • A1.11 Mortality data
          • A1.11.1 Limitations in mortality data
          • A1.11.2 Cause of death codes
          • A1.11.3 Comparability factors for mortality data
          • A1.11.4 Definitions of comorbid conditions
        • A1.12 Population data
        • A1.13 Population groups
          • A1.13.1 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
          • A1.13.2 Country of birth
          • A1.13.3 Socioeconomic status
          • A1.13.4 Cities, regional and remote areas
      • Appendix 2: Statistical tables
        • Asthma
          • Prevalence
          • Mortality
          • General practice
          • Hospitalisations
          • Patient days
        • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
          • Prevalence
          • Mortality
          • General practice
          • Hospitalisations
    • Abbreviations
    • Glossary
    • References
    • List of figures
    • List of tables

Notes and corrections

The current version of the publication is presented above.

Previous versions of files that have been updated or corrected are presented below.

  1. (11 Sep 2012) Page 17: amended value range in first sentence from "0-15" to "0-14". Page 134: replaced graph with new supplied version.

Recommended citation

Australian Centre for Asthma Monitoring 2011. Asthma in Australia 2011: with a focus chapter on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Asthma series no. 4. Cat. no. ACM 22. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 24 July 2014 <http://www.aihw.gov.au/publication-detail/?id=10737420159>.