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released: 11 Dec 2009 author: AIHW media release

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) account for around a quarter of the burden of disease in Australia, and just under two-thirds of all deaths. These three diseases often occur together and share risk factors, such as physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, and high blood pressure. This report includes information on the national prevalence of the main risk factors for CVD, CKD and diabetes as well as population initiatives and individual services that aim to prevent or control these risk factors. It shows the prevalence of some risk factors is increasing-notably obesity, which rose from 11% of adults in 1995 to 24% in 2007-08. This is the first report to present a systematic approach to monitor prevention in Australia, providing a baseline for future monitoring.

ISBN 978 1 74024 984 3; Cat. no. PHE 118; 140pp.; $45.00

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Publication table of contents

  • Preliminary material (315KB PDF)
    • Title and verso pages
    • Contents
    • Acknowledgments
    • Summary 
      • Main findings
      • Next steps
  • Body section
    1. Introduction (350KB PDF)
      • Background
        • Increased focus on prevention
        • Importance of monitoring prevention
        • Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease
      • Framework for monitoring prevention
        • What is prevention?
        • The framework
        • Application to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease
      • This report
        • Main questions
        • Structure
    2. Risk factors (862KB PDF)
      • Background
        • Absolute risk
        • Multiple risk factors
        • Burden of disease
      • Overweight and obesity
        • How do we measure overweight and obesity?
        • How many Australians are overweight or obese?
      • Physical inactivity
        • What is physical activity?
        • How many Australians are physically inactive?
      • Poor diet
        • Dietary fat intake
        • Dietary fibre intake
      • Tobacco smoking
        • What is tobacco smoking?
        • How many Australians smoke?
      • Excessive alcohol consumption
        • What is excessive alcohol consumption?
        • How many Australians drink alcohol?
      • High blood pressure
        • How do we measure blood pressure?
        • How many Australians have high blood pressure?
      • High blood cholesterol
        • What is cholesterol?
        • How many Australians have high total blood cholesterol?
      • Impaired glucose regulation
        • How is impaired glucose regulation defined?
        • How many Australians have impaired glucose regulation?
      • Depression
        • What is depression?
        • How many Australians have depression?
      • Low birthweight
        • What is low birthweight?
        • How many babies are born with a low birthweight in Australia?
      • Absolute risk
    3. Population-level prevention initiatives and interventions (382KB PDF)
      • Background
        • Monitoring population-level initiatives
        • Scope and purpose of this chapter
      • Types of population-level initiatives
        • Laws and regulations
        • Tax and price interventions
        • Improving the built environment
        • Public awareness campaigns
        • Community-based interventions
      • Population-level interventions currently in place
        • Overweight and obesity, physical inactivity and poor nutrition
        • Tobacco
        • Alcohol
        • Depression
    4. Individual-level prevention services (581KB PDF)
      • Background
      • Health checks in primary care
        • Medicare Benefits Schedule health checks
      • Health advice and referrals
        • Health advice
        • Referrals by general practitioners
      • Medications in the community
        • Supply of prescription medicines in the community
        • Medicines prescribed by general practitioners
      • Surgery for obesity
    5. Discussion (214KB PDF)
      • Answering the questions
      • Information gaps
      • Issues raised by the framework and analysis
      • Conclusions
  • End matter (342KB PDF)
    • Appendix
      • Data sources
        • Risk factors
        • Individual-level services aimed at prevention
    • Abbreviations
      • States and territories
      • Symbols
    • References
    • List of tables
    • List of figures

Recommended citation

AIHW 2009. Prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: targeting risk factors. Cat. no. PHE 118. Canberra: AIHW.