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Medical practitioner workforce

Nursing and midwifery workforce

AIHW Access issue no. 38, 2014

Access is a newsletter published by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, profiling the Institute's work and its people.

Mortality and life expectancy of Indigenous Australians 2008 to 2012

This report provides an overview of current patterns and trends in mortality and life expectancy among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Circulatory diseases were the leading cause of death of Indigenous Australians for the period 2008–2012 (representing 26% of Indigenous deaths), followed by cancer (20%) and injury (15%). There have been significant declines in overall Indigenous mortality rates as well as mortality rates from circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases between 2001 and 2012. However, there has been little improvement in Indigenous mortality from other causes such as cancer and injury over this period.

Estimating the prevalence of osteoporosis in Australia

This report presents information about the prevalence and impact of osteoporosis in Australians aged 50 and over. A broad range of data sources show that osteoporosis prevalence markedly increases with age and is more common in women than in men. Osteoporosis is one of several risk factors for minimal trauma fracture, with minimal trauma fracture of the hip being one of the most serious possible outcomes of osteoporosis. Although the rate of minimal trauma hip fracture for people aged 50 and over has decreased over the last ten years, the number of hip fractures continues to increase due to the increasing number of older adults in Australia.

National Community Services Data Dictionary, version 8, 2014

The National Community Services Data Dictionary (NCSDD) provides national data standards for the community services sector. This latest version (version 8) reflects changes to data standards between July 2012 and end-April 2014. Two data set specifications, 2 data element clusters, 96 data elements, 2 classifications and 8 glossary items have been added to the NCSDD. One national minimum data set, 3 data elements and 2 classifications have been superseded since the previous version of the NCSDD (version 7) was published.

Transition care for older people leaving hospital: 2005-06 to 2012-13

Transition care for older people leaving hospital examines the outcomes for the 87,000 people who received care under the Transition Care Program from 2005–06 to 2012–13. More than three-quarters of care recipients improved their level of functioning. Two-thirds of care recipients living in the community had not entered aged care 12 months after finishing their first episode of care under the program; and more than half did not enter residential aged care at all over the life of the program to June 2013.

Youth justice orders and supervision periods: 2012-13

This fact sheet summarises information on the number of supervised orders administered by state and territory youth justice agencies, and the periods of supervision experienced by young people in 2012-13. To some extent, differences between states and territories in the numbers and types of legal orders can reflect differences in legislation and legal and administrative practices.

Time under youth justice supervision: 2012-13

This fact sheet is about how long young people spent under youth justice supervision in 2012–13.

Long-term trends in youth justice supervision: 2012-13

This fact sheet summarises the long-term trends in rates of young people under supervision. It includes 7-year national trends and up to 13-year trends for individual states and territories.

Types of community-based supervision: 2012-13

This fact sheet outlines the types of community-based supervision that young people experienced in 2012-13.Young people may be supervised in the community under one or more types of orders, including:unsentenced orders-such as supervised or conditional bail (while awaiting the outcome of a court matter or sentencing)sentenced orders-such as probation and similar orders, suspended detention, and parole or supervised release (after being proven guilty in a court).Young people may be supervised under multiple orders of different types at the same time, and community-based orders may be interrupted by time spent in detention.

Unsentenced detention: 2012-13

This fact sheet summarises information about young people in unsentenced detention during 2012-13.Young people may be in unsentenced detention when they have been charged with an offence and are awaiting the outcome of their court matter, or when they have been found or pleaded guilty and are awaiting sentencing. They may also be sentenced to a period of detention if proven guilty in a court.Young people may be referred to unsentenced detention by either police (pre-court) or a court (known as remand). Police-referred pre-court detention is not available in all states and territories, and most young people in unsentenced detention are on remand.

Sentenced detention: 2012-13

This fact sheet provides information about young people in sentenced detention in 2012-13.Young people may be sentenced to a period of detention if proven guilty in a court. This includes young people who have received orders, such as control orders, revocation of parole and youth residential orders. They may also be in detention when they are unsentenced—that is, when they have been charged with an offence and are awaiting the outcome of their court matter, or when they have been found or pleaded guilty and are awaiting sentencing.

Detention entries and exits: 2012-13

This fact sheet provides information about the numbers of young people under youth justice supervision who were either received into, and/or released from, detention in 2012-13. A reception is when a young person enters detention having not been detained immediately before. Conversely, a release is when a young person leaves detention and is not detained immediately after.

Remoteness area and socioeconomic status: 2012-13

This fact sheet provides information about the remoteness area and socioeconomic status of young people under supervision during 2012-13, based on their last known address.

First entry to supervision: 2012-13

This fact sheet provides information about the first entry to youth justice supervision among young people who were supervised during 2012-13.

Youth justice supervision history: 2012-13

This fact sheet explores the supervision history of the young people who were under youth justice supervision during 2012-13.

Comparisons between the youth and adult justice systems: 2012–13

This fact sheet summarises some of the key similarities and differences between young people and adults in the justice systems in Australia.In all states and territories, young people aged 10 and over can be charged with a criminal offence. Separate justice systems exist for young people and adults, each with specific legislation. In most cases, the upper age limit in the youth justice system is 17 at the time of the offence (16 in Queensland). Some young people aged 18 and over are under youth justice supervision; reasons for this include their age at the time of the offence, continuation of their supervision once they turn 18, and their vulnerability or immaturity.

Comparisons between Australian and international youth justice systems: 2012–13

This fact sheet examines Australian and international approaches to youth justice.

Mortality inequalities in Australia 2009–2011

Despite relatively high standards of health and health care in Australia, not all Australians fare equally well in terms of their health and longevity. Substantial mortality inequalities exist in the Australian population, in terms of overall mortality, and for most leading causes of death, and these inequalities are long-standing.

Maternal deaths in Australia 2006-2010

Maternal deaths in Australia 2006–10 is the 15th report on women who die during pregnancy and childbirth. Although maternal deaths are rare in Australia, they are catastrophic events when they do occur and require monitoring and investigation. The report includes information about the women, pregnancy, and cause of death as well as good practice guidance points for clinicians to inform practice improvement.

Oral health and dental care in Australia: key facts and figures trends 2014

This report is the latest in the Oral health and dental care in Australia: Key facts and figures suite of printed publications and web products. It highlights the key trends, which suggest there have been improvements over the long term but there is some cause for concern in recent years. In adults, there was a decrease in the average number of teeth affected by decay from nearly 15 in 1987–88 to around 13 in 2004–06. From 1994 to 2010, however, the proportion reporting any adverse oral health impact generally increased and ranged from 31.4% in 1994 to a peak of 39.9% in 2008.

Health-care expenditure on arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions 2008-09

Arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions are substantial contributors to health-care expenditure in Australia. In 2008–09, estimated health-care expenditure allocated to these conditions totalled $5,690 million– the 4th most expensive disease group, accounting for 8.7% of total health-care expenditure allocated to disease groups.This report is the latest in a series on arthritis and other musculoskeletal conditions expenditure. The key objectives of this report are to describe the distribution of health-care expenditure by health-care sector for the major musculoskeletal conditions: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, back problems and osteoporosis.

Prisoner health services in Australia 2012

This bulletin provides an overview of health services in Australian prisons. It draws on data available from the 2012 National Prisoner Health Data Collection, supplemented by contextual information provided by state/territory departments responsible for prisoner health, to bring together a more comprehensive picture of services delivered to prisoners than has previously been available. The governance of health care in prisons in Australia is complex, with diverse services delivered, including some outside the prison.

Mortality from asthma and COPD in Australia

Asthma death rates in Australia are high compared with many other countries and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of deaths in Australia and internationally. This report provides current information about mortality due to these conditions in Australia, examining trends over time, seasonal variation, international comparison and variation by age, sex, remoteness, Indigenous status, country of birth and socioeconomic disadvantage.

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