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Obesity and injury in the National Hospital Morbidity Database

Obesity and injury are major health burdens on society. This report studies the feasibility of using the National Hospital Morbidity Database to investigate the relationship between obesity and hospitalised injury in Australia. The database does not currently provide a reliable basis for measuring obesity among admitted patients or for assessing the characteristics of injury cases with obesity. Inclusion of height and weight information in separations data would enable analysis of the effects of body mass index on injury occurrence, treatment and outcomes.

Multiple causes of death in Australia: an analysis of all natural and selected chronic disease causes of death 1997-2007

Multiple causes of death data are useful for describing the role of all diseases involved in deaths. This bulletin is the first comprehensive application of multiple causes of death statistics to natural causes of death and specific chronic diseases of public health importance in Australia. It may be useful for guiding and improving policy for reducing deaths from these chronic diseases and for targeting future investment in health prevention. When describing patterns of causes of death using only the underlying cause, important cause information is overlooked. Analyses using multiple cause data complement routine descriptions of mortality that use only the underlying cause and offer broader insight into the disease processes occurring at the end of life.

An enhanced mortality database for estimating Indigenous life expectancy: a feasibility study

The aim of an enhanced mortality database for estimating Indigenous life expectancy, a feasibility study is to improve reporting of information on Indigenous deaths by linking death registrations data with several additional data sets that contain information on Indigenous deaths. Linkage of registered deaths data to the additional data sets identified 10.2 per cent more deaths that were not identified as Indigenous on the registered deaths data set. The enhanced data also showed that expectation of life at birth for Indigenous Australians over the period 2001-2006 was 66.6 years for males and 72.7 years for females. This report shows that data linkage is an effective tool for improving estimates of mortality and life expectancy for Indigenous Australians.

Trends in palliative care in Australian hospitals

Trends in palliative care in Australian hospitals provides an overview of the nature and extent of palliative care separations in public and private hospitals across Australia for the 10-year period from 1999-00 to 2008-09. These separations may have occurred in a dedicated palliative care ward, a hospice or in other admitted patient beds in a hospital. The report indicates that there has been a substantial increase in the number of palliative care separations in admitted patient settings over time.

Identifying palliative care separations in admitted patient data: technical paper

This technical paper explores the most appropriate method of identifying those separations that occurred in Australian hospitals for which palliative care was a substantial component of the care provided. Coding and collection rules are considered, as well as national admitted patient data for 1999-00 to 2008-09.

The health of Australia's prisoners 2009

The health of Australia's prisoners 2009 is the culmination of several years' development of national indicators in relation to prisoner health in Australia. This first national report shows that prisoners in Australia have poor health compared to the general community. A week-long snapshot of prison entrants in Australia during 2009 showed: 25% had a chronic condition (such as asthma, cardiovascular disease or diabetes); 81% were current smokers; 52% consumed alcohol at risky levels; and 71% had used illicit drugs during the previous 12 months; 37% of prison entrants reported having received a mental health diagnosis at some time, 43% had received a head injury resulting in a loss of consciousness, and 31% had been referred to prison mental health services. The report also contains data relating to communicable diseases, educational attainment, deaths in custody, the use of health services and the types of medications used by prisoners.

Women and heart disease: cardiovascular profile of women in Australia

Cardiovascular disease is Australia's biggest killer. This report focuses on its impact on the health of Australian women - a group who may not be aware of how significant a threat this disease is to them. The report presents the latest data on prevalence, deaths, disability, hospitalisations, services, treatments, risk factors and expenditure, as well as comparisons to other important diseases among women. This report is a useful resource for policy makers, researchers, health professionals and anyone interested in cardiovascular disease in Australian women.

Women and heart disease: summary

Cardiovascular disease is Australia's biggest killer. This report provides a summary of cardiovascular disease and its impact on the health of Australian women. Women and heart disease: summary presents the key findings of its companion report, Women and heart disease: cardiovascular profile of women in Australia and looks at prevalence, deaths, disability, hospitalisations, medical services, treatments, risk factors and health care expenditure, as well as comparisons with other important diseases among women.

Asthma among older people in Australia

Over 92% of the 402 asthma deaths in 2006 were among people aged 45 years and over. Asthma in older Australians is distinct in many ways. The presence of comorbid conditions makes the management of asthma in older people more complex. The disease itself is also more persistent and severe than in the younger ages.

Cardiovascular disease mortality: trends at different ages

Despite a dramatic reduction since the late 1960s, cardiovascular disease remains the largest cause of death in Australia. Cardiovascular disease mortality: trends at different ages examines recent data to determine if the observed decrease in cardiovascular disease deaths since the 1960s is shared across disease sub-types and among different population groups. This report includes information on the past and recent trends of key cardiovascular diseases such as coronary heart disease and stroke, and describes how trends vary on the basis of age group and sex. International trends are also presented for comparison. The analyses presented in this report help to better understand what is driving the observed decrease in cardiovascular disease deaths, and are a useful resource for policy makers, researchers and health professionals interested in cardiovascular diseases.

Prevention of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and chronic kidney disease: targeting risk factors

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) account for around a quarter of the burden of disease in Australia, and just under two-thirds of all deaths. These three diseases often occur together and share risk factors, such as physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, and high blood pressure. This report includes information on the national prevalence of the main risk factors for CVD, CKD and diabetes as well as population initiatives and individual services that aim to prevent or control these risk factors. It shows the prevalence of some risk factors is increasing-notably obesity, which rose from 11% of adults in 1995 to 24% in 2007-08. This is the first report to present a systematic approach to monitor prevention in Australia, providing a baseline for future monitoring.

Breast cancer in Australia: an overview, 2009

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in Australian women with over 12,000 new cases diagnosed in 2006, and projections suggest that the number of new cases will continue to grow. A total of 2,618 women died from breast cancer in 2006, making it the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths for women. Trend data indicate that breast cancer mortality rates for females have been declining since the mid 1990s and that outcomes for women diagnosed with breast cancer have improved over recent decades. These and other data in this report provide a comprehensive picture of breast cancer in Australia including how breast cancer rates differ by Indigenous status, country of birth and geographic area.

Pathways through aged care services: a first look

Analysis of care pathways provides information that is useful to both policy planners and service providers alike. The Pathways in Aged Care (PIAC) cohort study linked aged care assessment data for a cohort of 105,100 people to data sets showing use of five main aged care programs and deaths over four years. Of particular interest in terms of care pathways is the smaller new-pathways cohort of 77,400 people who had not previously used aged care services that required and aged care assessment for access. This report presents the first findings from analysis of the new pathways cohort, investigating common care pathways, time to entry to permanent residential aged care and time to death after the first assessment for use of aged care services.

Injury deaths, Australia 2004-05

Accidental falls, suicide and transport-related injuries are common causes of death in the Australian community. This report finds that overall, rates of injury death in Australia during 2004-05 increased with the remoteness of the injured person's residence, with those who resided in very remote areas having a rate more than double that of the national rate. When considering only deaths resulting from motor vehicle transport accidents, the mortality rate for those who resided in very remote areas was 4 times the national rate. When considering state and territory of residence, those who resided in the Northern Territory, where much of the population lives in remote and very remote areas, had mortality rates almost 3 times the national rate for motor vehicle transport-related deaths, more than double the national rate for suicides, and more than 4 times the national rate for homicides.

BreastScreen Australia monitoring report 2005-2006

Breast cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in Australian women. The BreastScreen Australia Program aims to reduce mortality and morbidity from breast cancer through detecting cancers early, with over 1.5 million women (56.9%) aged 50-69 years participating in the Program in 2005-2006. Mortality from breast cancer has decreased steadily since the Program commenced in 1991, from 66 to 47 deaths per 100,000 women.

An overview of chronic kidney disease in Australia, 2009

This report explains what chronic kidney disease is and describes its extent and patterns in the Australian community. Chronic kidney disease contributed to nearly 10% of all deaths in Australia in 2006 and over 1.1 million hospitalisations in 2006-07. Risk factors for chronic kidney disease are highly prevalent in Australia and the number of Australians at risk is increasing. Indigenous Australians in particular are at high risk.

Drowning and other injuries related to aquatic activities at ages 55 years and older in Australia

A little over one-quarter of all drowning deaths in Australia and one eighth of hospitalised non-fatal drowning cases occur at ages 55 years and older. This report describes the occurrence of such cases during several years (nine for deaths and five for hospitalised cases). It also describes hospitalised non-drowning injuries in relation to aquatic activities and places.

Impact of falling cardiovascular disease death rates: deaths delayed and years of life extended

Death rates from CVD and CHD have declined dramatically in Australia since their peak in the mid 1960s. This report quantifies the number of lives saved since the peak and looks briefly at the age and sex population groups where the impact was likely to have been highest.

Cervical screening in Australia 2006-2007

The major objective of the National Cervical Screening Program is to reduce incidence and mortality from cervical cancer. Over 3.5 million women (61.5%) aged 20-69 years participated in the Program in 2006-2007, up from the last report. Incidence and mortality remain low at 9 new cases in 2005 and 2 deaths in 2006 per 100,000 women aged 20-69 years.

Non-melanoma skin cancer: general practice consultations, hospitalisation and mortality

Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common cancer diagnosed in Australia, with around 400,000 new cases per year. However, data on incidence and prevalence are not routinely collected. This report analyses data on NMSC available from the national general practice, hospitalisation and mortality collections to illustrate the burden of NMSC in Australia. Differentials by population subgroup (geographic region, socioeconomic status and country of birth) are provided where possible.

Hospital separations due to traumatic brain injury, Australia 2004-05

This report describes hospitalisations for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) in Australia for the period 2004-2005. TBI, as distinct from head injury, is characterised by an external impact to the head that results in damage to the brain. TBI is defined in this report by the presence in hospital separation records of at least one ICD-10-AM code in the S06 intracranial injury range occurring in at least one of fifty available diagnosis fields. The 22,710 records meeting this criterion were analysed in three groups, according to the prominence of TBI in the record. Analysis and description of combinations of injury types resulting in TBI admissions to a hospital are reported, including discussion of severity of injury, and cost and burden on the systems for acute care and rehabilitation. About 980 (4.3% of cases) deaths in hospital were reported. Direct costs for hospital care for TBI separations were estimated to be more than $184 million.

Cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2004-05

Cardiovascular disease is a major health problem in Australia, with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples carrying the greatest burden of illness and death from this disease. Up-to-date estimates on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors are important for monitoring their impact on the health of Indigenous Australians. This report presents national-level information for Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians on the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and its associated risk factors, as well as on cardiovascular deaths. Results are based mostly on analysis of the Australian Bureau of Statistics' most recent National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey and National Health Survey conducted in 2004-05.

Injury among young Australians

'Injury among young Australians' provides comprehensive information on injury incidence, hospitalisations and deaths among young people in Australia. It presents the most up-to-date available data, as well as trend data, on major causes of injury for this population group, including transport accidents, intentional self-harm and suicide, assault and accidental poisoning. Information is presented for these and other causes by age and sex, Indigenous status, remoteness of residence and socioeconomic status, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of injury among young Australians. This bulletin will be relevant to anyone interested in gaining an insight into the patterns of morbidity and mortality among young people due to injury.

Maternal deaths in Australia 2003-2005

Maternal deaths in Australia 2003-2005 is the fourteenth report on why women die during pregnancy and childbirth. The report is an observational study of maternal deaths in Australia. This report is produced by the AIHW National Perinatal Statistics Unit based at the University of New South Wales and funded by the Australian Commission for Quality and Safety in Healthcare. It will be particularly useful for researchers, policy makers, health service planners and those providing services in reproductive health.

Deaths and hospitalisations due to drowning, Australia 1999-00 to 2003-04

This report presents national statistics on deaths and hospitalisations due to drowning for the five-year period 1999-00 to 2003-04. Drowning occurs in a number of settings and contexts: in bodies of natural water, in swimming pools and bathtubs, in association with watercraft and as the result of intentional self-harm. Drownings resulting in death and hospitalisation are described in relation to these in terms of case numbers and rates, by age and sex, remoteness of usual residence, length of stay in hospital, and other characteristics. This report will be relevant to anyone interested in gaining an insight into patterns of fatal and non-fatal drowning and the burden they impose on the Australian community.

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