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Major preventable risk factors for cardiovascular disease include:
See Cardiovascular disease for more information or for summary data, see Risk factors statistics.
Major preventable risk factors for Type 2 diabetes include:
See Diabetes for more information or for summary data, see Risk factors statistics.
There are two methods for measuring overweight and obesity.
The Body Mass Index (BMI) is a commonly used and easy to apply measure. A person's BMI is equal to their weight in kilograms divided by the square of their height in metres.
The following classification, defined by the World Health Organization, is used for people aged 18 and over.
Table 1: Classification of BMI for people aged 18 and over
For children and adolescents, different BMI cutoffs are required. See Promoting Healthy Weight (Department of Health and Ageing) for more information.
Excess weight around the abdominal region is a good indicator of increased risk of developing chronic disease, particularly Type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Waist circumference is used to indicate abdominal overweight. The following classification is suitable only for persons aged 18 and over.
Table 2: Classification of waist circumference for people aged 18 and over
See Overweight and obesity for more information.
There are two different ways of calculating 'sufficient' physical activity for health. These are:
The National Physical Activity Guidelines for Australians (DHAC 1999) recommend that, to achieve health benefits, a person should participate in 30 minutes of at least moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. For the purposes of calculating 'sufficient' activity, this is interpreted as 30 minutes on at least 5 days of the week; a total of at least 150 minutes of activity per week. Therefore the two definitions of 'sufficient' above become:
See Physical inactivity for more information.