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Biomedical risk factors include:

Overweight and obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers and some musculoskeletal conditions. It occurs mainly from a sustained energy imbalance when energy intake (from our diet) exceeds energy expenditure (through physical activity and bodily functions).

High blood pressure (also known as hypertension) is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. Poor diet (particularly a high salt intake), obesity, excessive alcohol intake and insufficient physical activity can contribute to the development of high blood pressure.

Abnormal blood lipids (also known as dyslipidaemia) are also a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. Blood lipids are fats in the blood, such as cholesterol and triglycerides. While blood lipids play an important role in the body, abnormal blood lipids can contribute to the development of atherosclerosis—a build-up of fatty deposits in the blood vessels that may lead to cardiovascular disease. A diet high in saturated fats can contribute to the development of abnormal blood lipids.

Impaired glucose regulation is a characteristic of pre-diabetes and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. People with impaired glucose regulation have higher than normal blood glucose levels, although not high enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. Overweight and obesity, insufficient physical activity, high blood pressure and abnormal blood lipids can contribute to the development of impaired glucose regulation.