Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition that mostly affects the hands, spine and joints such as hips, knees and ankles, and usually gets worse over time. It is the predominant condition leading to knee and hip replacement surgery in Australia.
1 in 11 Australians (9%) have osteoarthritis, approximately 2.1 million people in 2014–15
1 in 4 people with osteoarthritis self-reported fair or poor health, twice as much as people without the condition
38% rise in the rate of total knee replacements for osteoarthritis from 2005–06 to 2015–16
2 in 3 people who have osteoarthritis are female
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in Australia. Self-reported estimates from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2014–15 National Health Survey show that about 2.1 million Australians (9% of the population) have this condition.
Osteoarthritis is more common in females than males. After adjusting for age, 10% of females have osteoarthritis compared to 6% of males.
The prevalence of osteoarthritis rises with age. While relatively few younger people have this condition, from the age of 45 the prevalence rises sharply.
Source: AIHW analysis of ABS Microdata: National Health Survey (NHS) 2014–15 (Data table).
There has been little change in the overall age-standardised prevalence of osteoarthritis over the last four ABS health surveys (2001, 2004–05, 2007–08, 2011–12 and 2014–15).
Note: Rates are age-standardised to the Australian population as at 30 June 2001.
Source: AIHW analysis of ABS 2001, 2004–05, 2007–08, 2011–12 and 2014–15 National Health Surveys.
People with osteoarthritis often have other chronic conditions. ‘Comorbidity’ is the term used when two or more health conditions occur at the same time. For this analysis, the selected comorbidities are cardiovascular disease (CVD) back problems, mental health problems, asthma, diabetes, COPD and cancer using self reported data from the ABS National Health Survey 2014–15. Among people with osteoarthritis:
(Note, these components do not total 100% as one person may have more than one comorbidity).
Most chronic conditions are more common in older age groups. The average age of people with osteoarthritis is older than the average age of the general population, so people with osteoarthritis are more likely to have age-related comorbidities. After adjusting for differences in the age structure of people with and without osteoarthritis, the rates of CVD, back problems, mental health problems, asthma and diabetes remained significantly higher for people with osteoarthritis compared to those without. There was no significant difference for COPD and cancer. It is important to note that regardless of the differences in age structures, having multiple chronic health problems or ‘comorbidities’ is often associated with worse health outcomes , in addition to a poorer quality of life  and more complex clinical management and increased health costs.
Some comorbidities, such as CVD, also reflect the underlying prevalence of these individual chronic conditions in the population.
Source: AIHW analysis of ABS Microdata: National Health Survey, 2014–15 (Data table).
After adjusting for age, the prevalence of osteoarthritis for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people is about the same as for total Australians.
Source: AIHW analysis of ABS Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (unpublished), 2012–13 (Data table).
The prevalence of osteoarthritis is not significantly different in Major cities, Inner regional, and Outer regional and remote areas. In 2014–15, the proportion of Australians who reported having osteoarthritis ranged from 7.7% in Major cities to 9.1 in Inner regional areas and 9.3% in Outer regional and remote areas combined.
The prevalence of osteoarthritis was higher for areas of lowest socioeconomic status (9.5%) compared to areas of highest socioeconomic status (7.2%).
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