Table of contents

  • Preliminary material
    • Title and verso pages
    • Contents
    • Acknowledgments
    • Key messages
    • Executive summary
  • Body section
    • 1. Introduction
      • Key points
      • What is asthma?
        • Diagnosis of asthma
        • Classification of asthma
      • The impact of asthma in Australia
      • Overview of this report
    • 2. Prevalence, incidence and natural history
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 2.1 Incidence and natural history of asthma
      • 2.2 Prevalence of ever-diagnosed asthma
      • 2.3 Prevalence of current asthma
      • 2.4 Time trends in the prevalence of asthma
      • 2.5 International comparisons
      • 2.6 Population subgroups
        • 2.6.1 Age and sex
        • 2.6.2 States and territories
        • 2.6.3 Cities, regions and remote areas
        • 2.6.4 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
        • 2.6.5 Country of birth
        • 2.6.6 Socioeconomic status
      • 2.7 Comorbid conditions among people with asthma
      • Summary
    • 3. Asthma control and quality of life
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 3.1 Asthma control
        • 3.1.1 Symptom frequency and severity
        • 3.1.2 Sleep disturbance attributed to asthma
      • 3.2 Asthma-related quality of life
        • 3.2.1 Impact of asthma on self-assessed health status
        • 3.2.2 Impact of asthma on the domains of health-related quality of life
      • Summary
    • 4. Mortality
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 4.1 Time trends in asthma deaths
      • 4.2 International comparisons
      • 4.3 Population subgroups
        • 4.3.1 Age and sex
        • 4.3.2 States and territories
        • 4.3.3 Cities, regions and remote areas
        • 4.3.4 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
        • 4.3.5 Country of birth
        • 4.3.6 Socioeconomic status
      • 4.4 Seasonal variation in mortality risk
      • 4.5 Comorbidities in people who died from asthma
      • 4.6 Asthma as an associated cause of death in deaths attributed to other underlying causes
      • Summary
    • 5. Use of health services
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 5.1 General practice encounters for asthma
        • 5.1.1 International comparisons
        • 5.1.2 Time trends
        • 5.1.3 Population subgroups
        • 5.1.4 Practice Incentives Program: Asthma Cycle of Care
        • 5.1.5 Claims for completed Asthma Cycles of Care in population subgroups
        • 5.1.6 Asthma procedures, treatments and referrals in general practice
      • 5.2 Hospitalisations and emergency department visits
        • 5.2.1 Emergency department visits
        • 5.2.2 Hospitalisations
        • 5.2.3 Comorbidities in patients admitted to hospital with asthma
      • 5.3 Invasive mechanical ventilation
        • 5.3.1 Time trends
        • 5.3.2 Population subgroups
      • 5.4 Health-care expenditure due to asthma
        • 5.4.1 Expenditure by health sector
        • 5.4.2 Other economic impacts of asthma
      • Summary
    • 6. Management
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 6.1 Written asthma action plans
        • 6.1.1 Possession of written asthma action plans
        • 6.1.2 Time trends
        • 6.1.3 Population subgroups
      • 6.2 Medications used to treat asthma
        • 6.2.1 Monitoring medication use
        • 6.2.2 Sources of data
        • 6.2.3 Time trends in the supply of medications for asthma and other respiratory disorders
        • 6.2.4 Current use of medications for asthma
        • Summary
    • 7. Smoking and occupational exposures as risk factors for asthma
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 7.1 People with asthma who smoke
        • 7.1.1 Prevalence
        • 7.1.2 Population subgroups
      • 7.2 Passive smoke exposure in children with asthma
        • 7.2.1 Exposure to passive smoke
      • 7.3 Occupational asthma
        • 7.3.1 Current surveillance
        • 7.3.2 Prevalence
        • 7.3.3 Incidence
        • 7.3.4 Improving surveillance
      • Summary
    • 8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in people aged 55 years and over
      • Key points
      • Introduction
      • 8.1 Prevalence
        • 8.1.1 Trends in COPD prevalence
        • 8.1.2 Age and sex
        • 8.1.3 Cities, regions and remote areas
      • 8.2 Mortality
        • 8.2.1 Time trends in COPD and asthma deaths
        • 8.2.2 International comparison
        • 8.2.3 Age and sex
      • 8.3 Use of health services
        • 8.3.1 General practice encounters for COPD and asthma
        • 8.3.2 Emergency department visits
        • 8.3.3 Hospitalisations
        • 8.3.4 Assisted ventilation
        • 8.3.5 Comorbidities in patients admitted to hospital with COPD
      • 8.4 Management and care
        • 8.4.1 Use of medication for COPD
        • 8.4.2 Long-term home oxygen therapy
        • 8.4.3 Pulmonary rehabilitation
      • 8.5 Smoking
        • 8.5.1 People with COPD who smoke
        • 8.5.2 Smoking cessation
      • Summary
  • End matter
    • Appendixes
      • Appendix 1: Data sources, definitions and population groups
        • A1.1 Analysis methods
          • A1.1.1 Rates
          • A1.1.2 Trends in rates
          • A1.1.3 Confidence intervals
          • A1.1.4 Tests of statistical significance and association
        • A1.2 Asthma definitions used for measuring prevalence
        • A1.3 BEACH (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) and SAND (Supplementary Analysis of Nomina
          • A1.3.1 BEACH data
          • A1.3.2 SAND data
        • A1.4 Emergency department data
          • A1.4.1 Comparability factors for emergency department data
          • A1.4.2 Limitations of emergency department data
        • A1.5 Expenditure data
          • A1.5.1 Expenditure for admitted patients
          • A1.5.2 Out-of-hospital medical services expenditure
          • A1.5.3 Prescription pharmaceuticals expenditure
          • A1.5.4 Other costs
          • A1.5.5 Limitations of expenditure data
        • A1.6 Health survey data
          • A1.6.1 National Health Survey
          • A1.6.2 National Health Survey (Indigenous)
          • A1.6.3 State/territory CATI surveys
        • A1.7 Longitudinal studies
          • A1.7.1 Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC)
          • A1.7.2 Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children (LSIC)
        • A1.8 Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) statistics
          • A1.8.1 Asthma Cycle of Care (formerly the Asthma 3+ Visit Plan) Practice Incentive Program
        • A1.9 Medication data
          • A1.9.1 IMS Health pharmaceutical data
          • A1.9.2 Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme and Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data
          • A1.9.3 Calculation of defined daily dose per 1,000 population per day
        • A1.10 Hospital data
          • A1.10.1 Limitations of the National Hospital Morbidity Database
          • A1.10.2 Hospital diagnosis codes
          • A1.10.3 Definitions of comorbid conditions
          • A1.10.4 Mechanical ventilation
        • A1.11 Mortality data
          • A1.11.1 Limitations in mortality data
          • A1.11.2 Cause of death codes
          • A1.11.3 Comparability factors for mortality data
          • A1.11.4 Definitions of comorbid conditions
        • A1.12 Population data
        • A1.13 Population groups
          • A1.13.1 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians
          • A1.13.2 Country of birth
          • A1.13.3 Socioeconomic status
          • A1.13.4 Cities, regional and remote areas
      • Appendix 2: Statistical tables
        • Asthma
          • Prevalence
          • Mortality
          • General practice
          • Hospitalisations
          • Patient days
        • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
          • Prevalence
          • Mortality
          • General practice
          • Hospitalisations
    • Abbreviations
    • Glossary
    • References
    • List of figures
    • List of tables