Many people cannot afford to rent or buy a home, so government programs provide Australians with housing assistance. This ranges from financial support to government-owned public housing. See glossary for definitions of housing types.

Policy context

The National Housing and Homelessness Agreement began in July 2018. It aims to improve access to affordable, safe and sustainable housing across the housing spectrum (Council of Federal Financial Relations 2018). The agreement covers social housing and support for people experiencing homelessness or those at risk of homelessness.

What types of housing assistance are available?

Housing assistance programs funded by Australian and state and territory governments are provided by government and non–government organisations (Table 1).

Table 1: Governments and organisations administering types of housing assistance

Government or organisation providing assistance

Type of housing assistance

 Australian Government

Commonwealth Rent Assistance

National Rental Affordability Scheme

State and territory governments

Public rental housing

State owned and managed Indigenous housing

Home purchase assistance

Private rent assistance

National Rental Affordability Scheme

First Home Owner Grant 

Community-based organisations

Specialist Homelessness Services

Community housing

Indigenous community housing

This page focuses on private rental market housing assistance and social housing.

For information about:

Private rental market housing assistance

Australians on low or moderate incomes renting through the private rental market may be able to receive government assistance with the cost of housing.

Commonwealth Rent Assistance is a non–taxable income supplement, paid fortnightly to eligible recipients. It is paid at 75 cents for every dollar above a minimum rental threshold until a maximum rate is reached. Minimum thresholds and maximum rates vary depending on the household or family situation. This includes the number of children (DSS 2019b).

Australian Government real expenditure (adjusted for inflation) on Commonwealth Rent Assistance increased by around 12% between 2013–14 and 2018–19, from $4.0 billion to $4.4 billion (DSS 2014, 2019a).

Private rent assistance is provided by state and territory governments to low–income households experiencing difficulty in securing or maintaining private rental accommodation. In 2018–19, it assisted about 91,800 unique households a decrease from 94,100 in 2013–14 (AIHW 2020).

National Rental Affordability Scheme is delivered by the Australian Government in partnership with state and territory governments. It offers annual financial incentives for up to 10 years to rent dwellings for eligible occupants at 80% or less of market value rent (DSS 2018).

As at 31 March 2020, there were 33,700 financial incentives issued (dwellings tenanted or available for rent) through the scheme (DSS 2020a).

Social housing programs

Social housing is rental housing made available to Australians on low incomes who cannot afford to rent through the private rental market. Historically, social housing was made available to working families on low to moderately low incomes (Groenhart & Bourke 2014). In more recent years, social housing has increasingly focused on assisting families in greatest need, especially those experiencing homelessness.

These rental properties are owned and managed by government and/or non–government organisations (including not–for–profit organisations).

Social housing programs include:

  1. Public housing: Rental housing provided and managed by all state and territory governments. Included are dwellings owned by the housing authority or leased from the private sector or other housing program areas and used to provide public rental housing or leased to public housing occupants.
  2. Community housing (also known as mainstream community housing): Housing managed by community-based organisations, available to low to moderate income or special needs households (see glossary). Community housing models vary among states and territories. Various groups, including government, own the housing stock.
  3. State owned and managed Indigenous housing (SOMIH): Housing that state and territory governments provide and manage. This is available to low to moderate–income households that have at least one member who identifies as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. SOMIH is currently available in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory.
  4. Indigenous community housing: Housing that Indigenous communities own and/or manage to provide housing services to Indigenous Australians (AIHW 2019b).

Who receives rental market housing assistance?

In the year to 28 June 2019, 1.29 million income units (a person or group of related persons in a household whose income is shared, see glossary) received Commonwealth Rent Assistance; about 25,200 income units fewer (or 2% less) than in 2018 (AIHW 2019a, 2020). Of the 12.9 million Australian individuals or couples (the reference person) receiving such assistance in 2019:

  • just under one-quarter (25%) were aged 65 years and over
  • 5.8% identified as Indigenous (see glossary) (AIHW 2020).

In 2018–19, there were about 91,800 unique households receiving private rent assistance; a decrease from 94,100 in 2013–14. Of these:

  • nearly one-third (31%) were provided to households with the main applicant aged 25–34, and around one-fifth (18%) were aged 15–24
  • 16% of instances were provided to Indigenous households
  • 56% were earning a gross income of less than $700 per week (or around $36,400 per year) (AIHW 2020).

As at 30 April 2019, around 63,000 occupants lived in 33,300 dwellings accommodated under the National Rental Affordability Scheme. Of these:

  • 56% were aged 18–54
  • 5.2% identified as Indigenous
  • 9.3% had disability
  • 29% received rent assistance (DSS 2019c).

Social housing occupants

Across Australia in 2018–19, around 797,100 occupants were in Australia’s 3 main social housing programs (AIHW 2020):

  • 72% were in public housing
  • 21% were in community housing
  • 6% were in SOMIH.

Most social housing occupants were female (56%) in 2018–19 (AIHW 2020). Factors such as domestic violence, relationship breakdown, financial difficulty and limited superannuation can put women at risk of homelessness (ABS 2018) and in need of social housing (AIHW 2018).

Of the households in social housing:

  • more than 1 in 7 (14%) included an Indigenous member at 30 June 2019, compared with 12% at 30 June 2015
  • almost 2 in 5 (37%) reported having an occupant with disability at 30 June 2019, compared with 42% of households at 30 June 2015
  • more than 1 in 2 (56%) consisted of single adults at 30 June 2019, compared with 53% at 30 June 2015 (AIHW 2016, 2019a).

At 30 June 2019, around one-third (35%) of public housing and 31% of community housing occupants were aged 55 years or over. Almost 1 in 3 (31%) of those in public housing and 35% in community housing were aged 25–54. Also, 22% of public housing occupants and 20% of community housing occupants were children aged 0–14 (AIHW 2020).

Priority groups

Housing assistance has shifted to target specific vulnerable groups, such as people experiencing homelessness or those at imminent risk of homelessness. For example, public housing, SOMIH and community housing prioritise households by assessing applicants in greatest need (see glossary). Among all social housing programs, newly allocated dwellings provided to households in greatest need has been increasing since 2013–14. For:

  • public housing, 76% (about 15,100) of newly allocated dwellings were provided to households in greatest need in 2018–19; up from 74% (about 15,300) in 2013–14
  • community housing, 66% (about 14,000) of newly allocated dwellings were provided to households in greatest need in 2018–19; down from 75% (about 9,300) in 2013–14
  • SOMIH, 60% (about 440) of newly allocated dwellings were provided to households in greatest need in 2018–19; up from 59% (about 440) in 2013–14 (AIHW 2020, Productivity Commission 2020).

Of all newly allocated greatest needs households in social housing, many were assisted because they were experiencing homelessness. For:

  • public housing, half (48%, or 7,200) of newly allocated households were provided to households experiencing homelessness in 2018–19, down from a peak of 59% (9,100) in 2013–14
  • SOMIH, 40% (180) of newly allocated households were provided to the homeless in 2018–19, a decrease from a peak of 52% (235) in 2015­–16
  • mainstream community housing, 39% (5,000) of newly allocated households were provided to the homeless in 2018–19, down from 43% (3,100) in 2013–14 (AIHW 2020).

Social housing dwellings

While the number of social housing dwellings has increased overall, it has not kept pace with population growth. Indeed, the number has decreased relative to the number of Australian households (AIHW 2020).

  • At 30 June 2019, there were about 437,700 social housing dwellings, an increase from 408,800 at 30 June 2006.
  • The number of public housing dwellings declined from around 341,400 in 2005–06 to 305,200 , at 30 June 2019. This was offset by an increase in community housing dwellings, from 32,300 to 100,200 over the same period.
  • The number of ‘other’ types of social housing dwellings (SOMIH and Indigenous community housing) decreased from 35,100 to 32,300 over this period (Figure 1).

The line graph shows that the number of public housing dwellings have declined from around 341,400 dwellings in 2006 to 305,200 in 2019. During the same time period, there was an increase in community housing dwellings, from around 32,300 to 100,200. The number of other types of social housing dwellings has declined from around 35,100 in 2006 to 32,300 in 2019. During the same time period, the total number of social housing dwellings has increased from 408,800 to 437,700.

Wait lists and wait times

People meeting eligibility requirements for social housing are frequently placed on wait lists until a suitable dwelling becomes available. Factors that may affect a person’s position and influence the length of wait lists, include:

  • changes to allocation policies
  • priorities and eligibility criteria
  • people may refuse an option and be removed from the list
  • some people who wish to access social housing may not apply because of long waiting times or lack of available options in their preferred location (AIHW 2019a).

A reduction in the number of people on wait lists may not mean a decrease in demand for social housing dwellings, and applicants may be on more than one wait list. This means assessing the total number of people on wait lists is difficult.

Households assessed to be in greatest need are prioritised for housing:

  • Nationally at 30 June 2019, there were 148,500 households awaiting a public housing allocation (a decrease from 154,600 at 30 June 2014), and 12,100 total households were awaiting allocation for a SOMIH dwelling (an increase from 8,000 at 30 June 2014).
  • Of those on the waiting list at 30 June 2019, around 52,600 new public housing applicants were classified as being in greatest need, up from 43,200 at 30 June 2014. For SOMIH, the number on the waiting list classified in greatest need was 5,700 at 30 June 2019, up from 3,800 at 30 June 2014.
  • In 2018–19, 41% of newly allocated public housing households and 55% of SOMIH households in greatest need (as defined by state and territory specific public housing criteria) spent less than 3 months on waiting lists (AIHW 2020).

Overcrowding and underutilisation

Social housing dwelling size and configuration must be considered so dwellings meet household needs and to use social housing stock to greatest effect (AIHW 2019a).

Overcrowding occurs when a dwelling is too small for the size and composition of the household. A dwelling requiring at least 1 additional bedroom is designated as ‘overcrowded’. At 30 June 2019, the proportion of social housing dwellings with occupants living in overcrowded conditions were:

  • 3.8% of households in public housing; down from 4.6% in 2014
  • 25% of households in SOMIH
  • 3.6% of households in community housing; similar to 4.1% in 2014 (AIHW 2020).

A dwelling is considered underutilised when two or more bedrooms are surplus to a household’s needs. At 30 June 2019, the proportion of social housing dwellings with occupants living in underutilised conditions was:

  • 11% of community housing households; the same as 11% in 2014
  • 17% of public housing households; relatively stable over the long term 
  • 26% of SOMIH households; an increase from a low of 23% in 2014 (AIHW 2020).

Where do I go for more information?

For more information on housing assistance, see:

Visit Housing assistance for more on this topic.


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DSS 2019a. Department of Social Services Annual Report 2018–19. Canberra: DSS. 2018–19.

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