0.1 Child protection substantiations

Children who have been abused or neglected often have poor social, behavioural and health outcomes in childhood and later life.

Child protection substantiations capture cases that have been reported to the state and territory departments responsible for child protection. A substantiation of a notification is the conclusion (following an investigation) that there was reasonable cause to believe that a child had been, was being, or was likely to be, abused, neglected or otherwise harmed.

When interpreting 'abuse type' data, it should be noted that if a child was the subject of more than one type of abuse or neglect as part of the same notification, the abuse and/or neglect reported is the one considered by the child protection workers to cause the most harm to the child.

For all indicator displays, where all years of data are comparable over time an ‘All’ category will be provided as an option in the ‘Year’ drop down display. If only a selection of specific years are comparable, these years (e.g. 2017 to 2019) will be provided as an option under ‘Year’ and ‘All’ will not be an option. See the footnotes for this indicator in the supplementary tables hyperlink below for further information.

See the XLS Downloadsupplementary table for this indicator for further information and footnotes about these data.

Indicator technical specifications

The information below provides technical specifications for the summary indicator data presented in the quick reference guide.

National Framework Indicator 0.1 Child protection substantiations: Rate of children aged 0-17 years who were the subject of child protection substantiation
  Definition Data source
Numerator Number of children aged 0–17 years who were the subject of child protection substantiations of notifications received in the reference period AIHW National Child Protection Data Collection
Denominator Number of children aged 0–17 years at 31 December AIHW Population Database (sourced from ABS Australian Demographic Statistics)

Explanatory notes

Child abuse may include neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse and emotional or psychological abuse. Abuse is substantiated if, in the professional opinion of officers of the child protection authority, there is reasonable cause to believe that a child has been, is being, or is likely to be abused or neglected or otherwise harmed.

The administrative data reported to the AIHW on child protection substantiations reflects departmental activity. Differences in child protection legislation, policies and practices across jurisdictions and over time can affect the number and rate of children in substantiations and so caution must be used when interpreting the data.

Administrative data captures incidence of substantiations of harm, or risk of harm, rather than prevalence of abuse and neglect.

Substantiations reported for this indicator refer to investigations of notifications received during the financial year (e.g. 1 July to 30 June of the following year) for which an outcome of 'substantiated' was recorded within two months of the end of the financial year (i.e. by 31 August).

Substantiated data generally capture maltreatment by a parent/guardian. Extra-familial maltreatment (i.e. by someone other than a child's parent or guardian) is not within the mandate of most jurisdictions unless the child's parents are not acting to protect the child.

See the XLS Downloadsupplementary table for this indicator for further information and footnotes about these data.