3.4 Homelessness

Children experience a number of negative educational, social and health consequences as a result of being homeless. These can include early school leaving, behavioural problems, lack of parental affection and support, and psychological problems such as depression and anxiety, with the effects of homelessness often persisting beyond the period of homelessness.

The causes of homelessness are complex and may include economic factors such as poverty, unemployment, increased housing costs, and unstable home environments caused by domestic violence. Factors that may lead to homelessness among children include family problems such as neglect, abuse, conflict, and drug and alcohol problems.

For all indicator displays, where all years of data are comparable over time an ‘All’ category will be provided as an option in the ‘Year’ drop down display. If only a selection of specific years are comparable, these years (e.g. 2017 to 2019) will be provided as an option under ‘Year’ and ‘All’ will not be an option. See the footnotes for this indicator in the supplementary tables hyperlink below for further information.

 See the XLS Downloadsupplementary table for this indicator for further information and footnotes about these data.

Indicator technical specifications

The information below provides technical specifications for the summary indicator data presented in the quick reference guide.

National Framework Indicator 3.4 Homelessness: Rate of children aged 0-17 years who receive assistance through homelessness services (accompanied and unaccompanied)
  Definition Data source
Numerator Number of children aged 0-17 years who received assistance through Specialist Homelessness Services (accompanied and unaccompanied) in the reference period Specialist Homelessness Services data collection
Denominator Number of children aged 0-17 years at 30 June AIHW Population Database (sourced from ABS Australian Demographics Statistics)

Explanatory notes

All children at risk of homelessness are not captured in the Specialist Homelessness Services (SHS) data collection; only those who sought and received assistance are included.

Assistance from SHS includes any service received (for example, shower or meal), not only accommodation. However, all SHS clients are either homeless, or at risk of homelessness, regardless of the service type they receive.

The national SHS data collection was implemented on 1 July 2011, replacing the Supported Accommodation Assistance Program (SAAP) data collection.

See the supplementary table for this indicator for further information and footnotes about these data.