The report describes the history of child protection and out-of-home care performance indicators as well as the current performance indicator framework used in Australia, where service performance is assessed in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. The data used to populate these indicators come from a variety of sources. The Productivity Commission, in its role as Secretariat for the Review of Government Service Provision, collects some data directly from the states and territories while other data are supplied via the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.Eight effectiveness indicators are discussed in this report. An overview of how each state and territory is performing against these indicators is provided. Factors which might affect the effectiveness of service provision, including policy, legislation, funding and resources, are also discussed to help explain data trends. The report concludes with a discussion of future directions for the performance indicator framework in the area of child protection and out-of-home care in Australia.