'A picture of Australia's children' is the third national statistical report on the health, development and wellbeing of Australia's children aged 0-14 years. Childhood, particularly early childhood, has become a key priority for governments and non-government organisations across Australia. This is in response to emerging issues of concern for Australia's children in the context of rapid social change, as well as compelling evidence about the importance of the early years for laying the foundations for children's future competence and physical and mental wellbeing. This report has been broadened to bring together a wide variety of data, including information about individual, family and societal factors that influence the health, development and wellbeing of children. New topics include exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, homelessness, literacy and numeracy, children as victims of violence, neighbourhood safety, and parental health and disability.