Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2022) Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 07 December 2022.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2022). Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease
Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 23 August 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2022 [cited 2022 Dec. 7]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2022, Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts, viewed 7 December 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease
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Diabetes is a chronic condition marked by high levels of glucose in the blood. It is caused by the inability of the body to produce or effectively use insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas to control blood glucose levels. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form. It involves a genetic component but is largely preventable and can be managed with changes to diet and physical activity, and with medications (Diabetes Australia 2022).
Diabetes is one of the main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (AIHW 2021, ANZDATA 2021). High blood glucose levels can damage the kidney’s filters (nephrons), affecting the ability to remove waste and fluid from the body. Diabetic kidney disease is also called ‘diabetic nephropathy’.
Diabetes and CKD share risk factors. Many people with diabetes develop high blood pressure, which can also damage the kidneys. People with both CKD and diabetes are more likely to develop other complications of diabetes such as nerve damage and eye damage.
Diabetes is the most common reason that people with CKD need to have dialysis or a kidney transplant. The mortality risk for people with kidney failure and diabetes is greater than the risk for people with kidney failure alone (Lim et al. 2018).
In 2020, based on linked data from the National Diabetes Services Scheme (NDSS) and Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group (APEG) state-based registers:
Information based on linked NDSS and APEG data underestimates prevalence as it does not include people with undiagnosed diabetes. The ABS 2011–12 Australian Health Survey, which included both measured and self-reported data, showed that for every 4 adults with diagnosed diabetes, there was 1 who was undiagnosed (ABS 2013).
This chart shows the estimated age–standardised proportion of people with diabetes based on data from the linked National Diabetes Services Scheme and Australasian Paediatric Endocrine Group between 2000 and 2020. The proportion increased from 2.4% in 2000 to 4.3% in 2020 but remained relatively stable between 2015 and 2020.
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) (2013) Australian Health Survey: biomedical results for chronic diseases, 2011–12, ABS, Australian Government.
ABS (2019) National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey, 2018–19, ABS, Australian Government.
AIHW (2021) Australian Burden of Disease Study 2018: interactive data on risk factor burden, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 1 February 2022.
AIHW (2022) Diabetes facts, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 13 July 2022.
ANZDATA (Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry) (2021) ANZDATA 44th Annual Report 2021, ANZDATA, Adelaide, accessed 1 November 2021.
Diabetes Australia (2022) What is diabetes, Diabetes Australia, accessed 12 April 2022.
Lim WH, Johnson DW, Hawley C, Lok C, Polkinghorne KR, Roberts MA et al. (2018) ‘Type 2 diabetes in patients with end-stage kidney disease: influence on cardiovascular disease-related mortality risk’. Medical Journal of Australia, 209:440–446, doi: 10.5694/mja18.00195.
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