Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2023) Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 09 February 2023.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2023). Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease
Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 09 February 2023, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2023 [cited 2023 Feb. 9]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2023, Chronic kidney disease: Australian facts, viewed 9 February 2023, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease
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Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in Australia today. Smoking increases blood pressure, reduces blood oxygen levels and damages blood vessels, heightening the risk of plaques and clots.
People who smoke are at increased risk for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) – and that risk increases with greater lifetime exposure to smoking (Hallan and Orth 2011; Yacoub et al. 2010). Smoking contributes to negative outcomes for people with kidney transplants (Mercado and Jaimes 2007). Smoking also contributes to the development of other chronic diseases closely linked to CKD, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (Briganti et al. 2002).
Australia’s smoking rate has fallen over the past 40 years, largely attributable to public health strategies. However, the proportion of people continuing to smoke is still concerning, particularly in some population groups such as Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and people living in low socioeconomic areas (Greenhalgh et al. 2022).
In 2019, based on results from the National Drug Strategy Household Survey:
The line chart shows the proportion of people smoking, by sex and smoking status between 2001 and 2019. Daily smokers fell from 19.4% in 2001 to 11.0% in 2019.
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) (2022) Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 1 May 2022.
AIHW and NIAA (National Indigenous Australians Agency) (2022) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework summary report 2020, Measure 2.15 – Tobacco use, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 31 May 2022.
Briganti EM, Branley P, Chadban SJ, Shaw JE, McNeil JJ, Welborn TA and Atkins RC (2002) ‘Smoking is associated with renal impairment and proteinuria in the normal population: the AusDiab kidney study’, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, 40:704–712, doi: 10.1053/ajkd.2002.35677.
Greenhalgh EM, Scollo MM and Winstanley MH (2022) Tobacco in Australia: facts and issues, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, accessed 8 April 2022.
Hallan SI and Orth SR (2011) ‘Smoking is a risk factor in the progression to kidney failure’, Kidney International, 80:516–523, doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.157.
Mercado C and Jaimes EA (2007) ‘Cigarette smoking as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and renal disease: novel pathogenic insights’, Current Hypertension Reports, 9:66–72, doi: 10.1007/s11906-007-0012-8.
Yacoub R, Habib H, Lahdo A, Radwan AA, Varjabedian L, Atalla G, Aki NK, Aldakheel S, Alahdab S and Albitar S (2010) ‘Association between smoking and chronic kidney disease: a case control study’, BMC Public Health, 10:731, doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-731.
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