Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2020) Gout , AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 08 October 2022.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2020). Gout . Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-musculoskeletal-conditions/gout
Gout . Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 25 August 2020, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-musculoskeletal-conditions/gout
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Gout [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2020 [cited 2022 Oct. 8]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-musculoskeletal-conditions/gout
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2020, Gout , viewed 8 October 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/chronic-musculoskeletal-conditions/gout
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Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis. It occurs when excess uric acid in the blood leads to deposits of uric acid crystals in one or more joints. These deposits cause inflammation, with the big toe joint being most commonly affected. Gout can also affect other joints in the arms (fingers, wrists, elbows) and legs (toes, ankles, knees).
Gout is characterised by sudden attacks (flares) of severe pain, swelling, redness, heat, tenderness and stiffness in the affected joints.
These flares can last for days or weeks, and are followed by long periods without any symptoms. If flares occur in the same joint over many years, and the underlying excess of uric acid is not controlled, joints can be permanently damaged (Arthritis Australia 2019).
Self-reported data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2017–18 National Health Survey shows that an estimated 4.5% of Australians have gout. Gout is more common in males than females—almost 8 in 10 (79%) people with gout are males (ABS 2019).
Note that the AIHW has changed the way it classifies gout from NHS data. Previously, as with most other chronic conditions, a person was classified as having gout if they reported that their gout was both current and long term. Using this method, the prevalence of gout was 0.8%. However, evidence suggests that once a person has gout they always have gout, even if they are not currently experiencing symptoms (Bursil et al. 2019). The prevalence data presented above (4.5% of Australians) counts any person who reported ever having gout.
The underlying cause of gout is excess uric acid in the blood—a metabolic disorder called hyperuricaemia. This disorder is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (Capuano et al. 2016) and metabolic syndrome (Grassi et al. 2014). Risk factors for hyperuricaemia include obesity, diabetes, hypertension and heart disease, poor kidney function and kidney disease, and a diet high in meat, seafood and alcohol (Capuano et al. 2016, Grassi et al. 2014).
Other factors that are associated with an increased risk of gout are family history, sex and age; gout is more common in men than in women, and increases with age.
Gout can be very disabling due to significant pain and functional impairment. Frequent attacks of gout have been found to be associated with reduction in work participation (Chandratre et al. 2013; Lindsay et al. 2011).
According to the 2015 Australian Burden of Disease Study, gout accounted for 0.9% of the burden due to musculoskeletal conditions. Males experienced more (82%) of the burden than females (18%) (AIHW 2019a). In 2015–16, gout cost the Australian health system an estimated $176.5 million, representing 1.4% of disease expenditure on Musculoskeletal conditions and 0.2% of total disease expenditure (AIHW 2019b).
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 2019. Microdata: National Health Survey, 2017-18, detailed microdata, DataLab. ABS cat no. 4324.0.55.001. Canberra: ABS. Findings based on AIHW analysis of ABS microdata.
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2019a. Australian Burden of Disease Study 2015: Interactive data on disease burden. Australian Burden of Disease Cat. no. BOD 24. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 13 June 2019.
AIHW 2019b. Disease expenditure in Australia. Cat. no. HWE 76. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 13 June 2019.
Arthritis Australia 2019. Taking control of your gout. Canberra: Arthritis Australia. Viewed 5 November 2020.
Bursill D, Taylor WJ, Terkeltaub R, Kuwabara M, Merriman T R, Grainger R et al. 2019. Gout, Hyperuricemia, and Crystal-Associated Disease Network Consensus Statement Regarding Labels and Definitions for Disease Elements in Gout. Arthritis care & research, 71(3): 427–434.
Capuano V, Marchese F, Capuano R et al. 2016. Hyperuricaemia as an independent risk factor for major cardiovascular events: a 10-year cohort study from Southern Italy. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine. doi:10.2459/JCM.0000000000000347.
Chandratre P, Roddy E, Clarson L et al. 2013. Health-related quality of life in gout: a systematic review. Rheumatology (Oxford). 52(11):2031–2040.
Grassi D, Ferri L, Desideri G et al. 2014. Chronic hyperuricaemia, uric acid deposit and cardiovascular risk. Current Pharmaceutical Design 19:2432–2438.
Lindsay K, Gow P, Vanderpyl J et al. 2011. The experience and impact of living with gout: a study of men with chronic gout using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Journal of Clinical Rheumatology 17:1–6.
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