Table of contents

  • Preliminary material
    • Title and verso pages
    • Contents
    • Acknowledgments
    • Abbreviations
    • Symbols
    • Summary
    • Recommendations for additional baseline data
      • Australia
      • New Zealand
    • Observations for future monitoring
      • Australia
      • New Zealand
  • Body section
    • 1 Introduction
      • 1.1 Purpose of this report
      • 1.2 Background
        • Folic acid
        • Iodine
        • Mandatory folic acid fortification
        • Mandatory iodine fortification
      • 1.3 Structure of this report
    • 2 Monitoring frameworks and measures
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 Folic acid fortification monitoring framework
        • Expected outcome of fortification
        • Target population
        • Monitoring elements
      • 2.3 Folic acid fortification monitoring measures
        • Food composition and food industry compliance
        • Nutrient intake
        • Nutrient status
        • Health benefits
        • Adverse health effects
          • Upper level of intake
          • Cancer
          • Literature review
      • 2.4 Iodine fortification monitoring framework
        • Expected outcome of fortification
        • Target population
        • Monitoring elements
      • 2.5 Iodine fortification monitoring measures
        • Food composition and food industry compliance
        • Nutrient intake
        • Nutrient status
        • Health benefits
        • Adverse health effects
          • Upper level of intake
          • Median urinary iodine concentration
      • 2.6 Baseline data quality
    • 3 Australian baseline data for mandatory folic acid fortification
      • 3.1 Food composition
        • FSANZ Food Composition Database
          • General limitations of food composition data
          • Background to FSANZ Food Composition Program
        • Discussion
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 3.2 Food industry compliance
        • Compliance and enforcement model for mandatory folic acid fortification
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 3.3 Folic acid intake
        • FSANZ's dietary intake assessment for folic acid for Proposal P295
          • Results
            • Adequacy
            • Safety
          • Background to FSANZ's dietary intake assessment for Proposal P295
            • Population groups
            • Concentration data
            • Assumptions
              • Consumer behaviour
              • Concentration data
        • 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey
          • CSIRO analysis of results
          • Concentration data
          • Reporting of results
          • Folic acid intakes
          • FSANZ analysis of results
        • Victorian Health Monitor
        • Western Australian Population Health Genomics Folate Study
        • Roy Morgan Single Source data
        • FSANZ consumer fortification survey
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 3.4 Supplement use
        • Victorian Population Health Survey
          • Results
        • NSW Population Health Survey
          • Results
        • South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System
          • Results
        • Australian Capital Territory General Health Survey
        • Victorian Health Monitor
        • Western Australian Population Health Genomics Folate Study
        • Population Survey Monitor
          • Results
          • Methods
            • Sample design
            • Study population
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 3.5 Serum folate
        • Child Determinants of Adult Health Study
          • Results
          • Methods
            • Sample design
            • Study population
        • Aboriginal Birth Cohort Study
          • Results
          • Methods
            • Sample design
            • Study population
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 3.6 Red blood cell folate
        • Western Australian Folate Study
        • Victorian Health Monitor
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 3.7 Neural tube defects
        • Neural tube defect incidence in Australia 1992–2005
          • Results
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 3.8 Cancer incidence and mortality
        • Bowel cancer
          • Incidence
            • Males
            • Females
          • Mortality
            • Males
            • Females
        • Prostate cancer
          • Incidence
          • Mortality
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 3.9 Bowel cancer screening
        • National Bowel Cancer Screening Program
          • Results
        • Discussion
        • Recommendation for baseline data
      • 3.10 Summary of Australian baseline data sources for mandatory folic acid fortification
    • 4 Australian baseline data for mandatory iodine fortification
      • 4.1 Food composition
        • FSANZ Food Composition Database, AUSNUT 2007
        • Discussion
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 4.2 Food industry compliance
        • Compliance and enforcement model for mandatory fortification
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 4.3 Iodine intake
        • FSANZ's dietary intake assessment for iodine for Proposal P1003
          • Results
            • Adequacy
            • Safety
          • Background to FSANZ's dietary intake assessment for Proposal P1003
            • Population groups
            • Concentration data
            • Assumptions
              • Consumer behaviour
              • Concentration data
              • General
        • 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey
          • CSIRO analysis of results
            • Adequacy
            • Safety
          • FSANZ analysis of results
        • Victorian Health Monitor
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 4.4 Supplement use
        • 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey
          • Results
        • Victorian Health Monitor
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 4.5 Median urinary iodine concentration
        • Australian National Iodine Nutrition Study
          • Results
        • Tasmanian Iodine Monitoring Program
          • Results
          • Methods
            • Sample design
              • Before voluntary fortification
              • After voluntary fortification
            • Study population
              • Before voluntary fortification
              • After voluntary fortification
            • Median urinary iodine concentration
        • Aboriginal Birth Cohort Study
          • Results
          • Methods
        • Victorian Health Monitor
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 4.6 Summary of Australian baseline data sources for mandatory iodine fortification
    • 5 New Zealand baseline data for mandatory folic acid fortification
      • 5.1 Food composition
        • Manufactured Food Database
        • Discussion
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 5.2 Food industry compliance
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 5.3 Folic acid intake
        • FSANZ's dietary intake assessment for folic acid for Proposal P295
          • Results
            • Adequacy
            • Safety
          • Methods
            • Population groups
            • Concentration data
            • Assumptions
              • Consumer behaviour
              • Concentration data
        • 2008–09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
          • Results
          • Methods
            • Sample design
            • Food consumption data
        • 2002 National Children's Nutrition Survey
          • Results
            • University of Otago analysis of results
          • Methods
            • Sample design
            • Study population
            • Food consumption data
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 5.4 Supplement use
        • 2008–09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
        • Folate status of representative populations in Dunedin
          • Results
          • Methods
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 5.5 Serum folate
        • 2008–09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
        • Folate status of representative populations in Dunedin
          • Results
          • Methods
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 5.6 Red blood cell folate
        • 2008–09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
        • Folate status of representative populations in Dunedin
          • Results
          • Methods
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observations for future monitoring
      • 5.7 Neural tube defects
        • Neural tube defect incidence in New Zealand 1998–2003
        • Discussion
        • Recommendation for baseline data
      • 5.8 Cancer incidence and mortality
        • Bowel cancer
          • Results
            • Incidence
              • Males
              • Females
            • Mortality
              • Males
              • Females
        • Prostate cancer
          • Incidence
          • Mortality
        • Discussion
        • Recommendation for baseline data
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 5.9 Bowel cancer screening
        • National bowel cancer screening program
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 5.10 Summary of New Zealand baseline data sources for mandatory folic acid fortification
    • 6 New Zealand baseline data for mandatory iodine fortification
      • 6.1 Food composition
        • New Zealand Food Composition Database
          • Iodine content of New Zealand foods
          • General limitations of food composition data
        • Discussion
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 6.2 Food industry compliance
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 6.3 Iodine intake
        • FSANZ's dietary intake assessment for iodine for Proposal P230
          • Background
          • Results
            • Adequacy
            • Safety
          • Methods
            • Food consumption data
            • Population groups
            • Concentration data
            • Assumptions
              • Consumer behaviour
              • Concentration data
              • General
        • 2008–09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
        • 2002 Children's National Nutrition Survey
          • University of Otago analysis of results
            • Adequacy
            • Safety
          • NZFSA/FSANZ analysis of results
        • Discussion
        • Recommendations for baseline data
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 6.4 Supplement use
        • 2008–09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
        • Discussion
        • Recommendation for baseline data
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 6.5 Median urinary iodine concentration
        • 2002 New Zealand National Children's Nutrition Survey
          • Results
        • 2008–09 New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey
        • Discussion
        • Recommendation for baseline data
        • Observation for future monitoring
      • 6.6 Summary of New Zealand baseline data sources for mandatory iodine fortification
  • End matter
    • 7 Appendix—Key data sources
      • Method
      • Key Australian folic acid and iodine data sources
        • National data
        • State and Territory regional data
          • Australian Capital Territory
          • New South Wales
          • Queensland
          • South Australia
          • Victoria
          • Western Australia
          • Tasmania
      • Key New Zealand folic acid and iodine data sources
        • National data
        • Regional data
      • 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey
      • The Adult Key Foods Program
      • AUSNUT 2007
      • Australian Congenital Anomalies Monitoring System
      • Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study
      • Australian Food Statistics 2008
      • Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health
      • Australian National Iodine Nutrition Study
      • Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods
      • Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health (BEACH)
      • Australian Health Survey (comprising the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey and the National Health Measures Survey)
      • Disease Expenditure Database
      • Australian Total Diet Study
      • NUTTAB 2006—Food Composition Data Source
      • Growing Up in Australia: the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children
      • National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey
      • Australian Cancer Database
      • National Health Survey
      • National Hospital Morbidity Database
      • National Mortality Database
      • National Nutrition Survey 1995
      • Australian Capital Territory Year 6 Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey
      • New South Wales Blue Mountains Eye Study
      • New South Wales Iodine Status in Pregnant Women and their Newborns
      • New South Wales Birth Defects Register
      • New South Wales Population Health Survey
      • Prevalence of Low Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 in an Older Adult Population
      • Sydney Older Persons Study
      • The 45 and Up Study
      • Brisbane First Time Blood Donors Study
      • Healthy Kids Queensland Survey 2006
      • Queensland Health Survey
      • Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing
      • Florey Adelaide Male Ageing Study
      • South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System
      • South Australian Births Defects Register
      • South Australian Health Monitor
      • Victorian Food Labelling Monitoring
      • Victorian Population Health Survey
      • The Victorian Health Monitor
      • Western Australian Folate Intake and Primary Prevention of Non-neural Birth Defects Study
      • Food Frequency Western Australia 2006
      • Health Measures Western Australia
      • Remote Indigenous Stores and Takeaways Project
      • Trends in Neural Tube Defects in Western Australia
      • WA Health and Wellbeing Surveillance System
      • Western Australian Birth Defects Registry
      • Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey
      • Western Australian Population Health Genomics Folate Study
      • Tasmanian Iodine Monitoring Program
      • New Zealand standards compliance—folic acid
      • New Zealand standards compliance—iodine
      • New Zealand folate overages
      • Iodine in infant and toddler formula
      • Iodine retention in processed foods
      • Iodine content of New Zealand bread
      • Levels of iodine in New Zealand retail salt
      • Manufactured Food Database
      • New Zealand Total Diet Survey
      • 1997 National Nutrition Survey
      • 2002 National Children's Nutrition Survey
      • New Zealand National Minimum Dataset
      • New Zealand Mortality Collection
      • New Zealand Cancer Registry
      • New Zealand Births Defects Monitoring Programme
      • New Zealand Food Composition Database
      • New Zealand Adult Nutrition Survey 2008–2009
      • The Thyromobile and Iodine in Pregnancy Survey
      • Folate status of representative populations in Dunedin
      • The Iodine status of lactating women and breastfed babies in Dunedin
    • Glossary
    • References
    • List of tables
    • List of figures