Definitions

Healthy Living Practices (HLP)

The housing for health approach used in the Fixing Houses for Better Health (FHBH) program supports the idea that a householder's ability to practice specific healthy living practices (HLPs) is dependent upon the functionality of their house, in particular what is called 'health hardware'.This includes items such as safe electricity and water supply, toilets, showers, washing areas and food preparation areas.

A total of 36 HLPs have been defined. These can be grouped into 9 broad groups and an over arching safety HLP which was developed after the original 9. The HLPs have been described as either critical or non-critical. The 11 critical HLPs are shaded in Table 1.

Table 1: Healthy Living Practices
A Safety
A.1 Power, water, waste connected
A.2 Safety: electrical system safe
A.3 Safety: gas supply safe
A.4 Safety: structure of and access to the house is safe
A.5 Hot water system safe
A.6 Safety: fire
1 The ability to wash people, particularly children under five years of age
1.1 Shower working
1.2 Washing children: basin/bath/tub working
1.3 Bath tub working
1.4 Washing areas that help people wash
1.5 Hot water quantity and economy
1.6 Basin working
1.7 Laundry tub working
2 The ability to wash clothes and bedding
2.1 Laundry services OK with or without a washing machine
2.2 Laundry services OK with washing machine
2.3 Laundry areas that help people wash clothes
3 The ability of houses to remove waste safely
3.1 Flush toilet working
3.2 Waste removal from all other (i.e. non toilet) areas working
3.3 Flush toilet and waste removal from all other areas working
3.4 Ease of using and maintaining toilet
3.5 Ability to dispose of waste water from the yard
4 The ability of the house to store, prepare and cook food
4.1 Ability to store and prepare and cook food
4.2 Ability to store food only
4.3 Ability to prepare food only
4.4 Ability to cook food only
4.5 Kitchens that help people prepare food
5 Reducing crowding
5.1 Reducing the impact of crowding
6 Reducing negative contact between people and animals, vermin or insects
6.1 Reducing the impact of dogs and cats
6.2 Reducing the impact of vermin
6.3 Reducing the impact of dust mites
6.4 Reducing the impact of flies and mosquitoes
7 Reducing the negative impact of dust
7.1 Reducing the impact of dust
8 Controlling temperature for health
8.1 Warm houses in cold conditions
8.2 Cool houses in hot conditions
8.3 Affordable heating and cooling
9 Ability of the house to afford the HLPs
9.1 House overall economy and efficiency

Note: Critical HLPs are shown in red.

Information from the FHBH survey fix has been used to calculate a score between 0% OK and 100% OK for each HLP. It is essential to score 100% OK for all the critical HLPs to achieve a safe and fully functional dwelling. Scores below 100% OK give an indication of the extent to which a dwelling meets the HLP. For each of the HLPs, dwellings have been grouped into the following categories:

  • <25% OK
  • 25 - <50% OK
  • 50 - <75% OK
  • 75 - <100% OK
  • 100% OK
  • Not assessed

The results of a number of individual survey data items are used to calculate each HLP score. The following tables show the survey data items which contribute to each HLP score. The score needed for 100% OK is shown for each data item as well as the possible responses and their score.

Table 2: A.1 Power water, waste connected
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Water available 1 Yes 1
    No 0
Type of waste water system 1 None available 0
    Deep sewer system 1
    Septic tank and common effluent system 1
    Septic tank and soakage trenches 1
    Other e.g. aerobic waste water system 1
All waste water OK 1 Yes 1
    No 0
Electricity available 1 Yes 1
    No 0
Table 3: A.2 Safety: electrical system safe
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Washing machine power point test OK 1 Not applicable 0
    No power point available near washing machine 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Light fittings: all tested OK 1 No data 0
    Yes, all OK 1
    No, some not OK 0
Light switch: all tested OK 1 No data 0
    Yes, all OK 1
    No, some not OK 0
Location/position of laundry power point OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes is OK 1
    No is not OK 0
Electrical switch board OK? 1 All OK 1
    Any possible fault 0
Electrical earth connection 1 Yes, able to be found and OK 1
    No 0
Safety switch OK 1 Yes 1
    No 0
Meter box OK? 1 Yes 1
    No i.e. boxdamaged or not available 0
Power points: all tested OK 1 No data 0
    All OK 1
    <100% OK 0

 

Table 4: A.3 Safety: gas supply safe
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Gas installation OK 1 Not applicable 0
    No gas flowing 0
    Yes 1
    No 0

 

Table 5: A.4 Safety: structure of and access to the house is safe
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Stairs and handrails OK 1 House is on ground 1
    All stairs and balcony handrails are secure 1
    All stairs and balcony handrails are NOT secure 0
Floor: finish and condition 1 Good = all floors OK 1
    Fair = not unsafe but poor finish 1
    Poor = holes, unsafe 0
Lights: % tested OK 5 No data 0
    All OK 5
    75-99% OK 3
    25-74% OK 1
    <25% OK 0
Septic tank lid/s OK 1 Not applicable 0
    No tank able to be located 1
    Yes 1
    No 0
Disabled/frail aged access OK 1 No disabled or frail aged users 1
    Frail aged present and report adequate access 1
    Frail aged present and report poor access 0
Termites NOT present 1 Good: no termites 1
    Bad: termites present 0
Walls: outside condition 1 Good = all OK 1
    Fair = minor cracking, repair needed 1
    Poor = holes, large cracks 0

 

Table 6: A.6 Safety: fire
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Smoke detectors fitted: number 1 None 0
    1 1
    2 1
    3+ 1
Smoke detectors: number not testing OK 1 None fitted/not applicable 0
    All OK 1
    1 not working 0
    2 not working 0
    3+ not working 0
Fire escape is possible via... 2 All external doors and ALL windows 2
    All external doors and some windows 1
    External doors only 0

 

Table 7: 1.1 Shower working
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Shower taps: cold OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Shower taps: hot OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Shower drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Shower hot water available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Shower: hot water temperature 1 Not applicable 0
    >= 45 1
    < 45 0
Shower rose OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Shower cold water available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0

1.2 Washing children: basin/bath/tub working

To score 100%OK either the basin, bath or laundry tub must be 100% OK. Tables 8, 9 and 10 show the survey data items which contribute to the HLP score for basin working, bath tub working and laundry tub working.

Table 8: Basin working
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Basin cold water available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Basin spout check OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Basin tap/s 1 Not applicable 0
    Taps for basin only 1
    Taps shared (e.g. with washing machine) 0
Basin tap: hot OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Basin secure OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Basin hot water available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Basin size OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Basin tap: cold OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Table 9: Bath working
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Bath drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bath spout check OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bath plug OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bath tap: cold OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bath: cold water available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bath: hot water available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bath tub available? 1 No bath 0
    One bath 1
    More than one bath 1
Bath tap: hot OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bath secure OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Table 10: Laundry tub working
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Laundry tub taps: hot OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub taps: cold OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub secure 1 Not applicable, no tub 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Independent drainage for washing machine? 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub spout OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No laundry tub 0
Table 11: 2.1 Laundry services OK with OR without a washing machine
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Laundry tub available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No laundry tub 0
Laundry tub spout OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub taps: cold OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub taps: hot OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub secure 1 Not applicable, no tub 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Location/position of laundry power point OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes is OK 1
    No is not OK 0
Washing machine power point test OK 1 Not applicable 0
    No power point available near washing machine 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry floor waste OK? 1 Not applicable 0
    No floor waste present 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Washing machine drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Washing machine taps: cold OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Washing machine space available 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Washing machine taps: hot OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Table 12: 3.1 Flush toilet working
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Cistern OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Pan is OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Refill time OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Full flush test OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Table 13: 3.2 Waste removal from all other (i.e. non toilet) areas working
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Shower drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Toilet: floor waste OK 1 No floor waste present 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry tub drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Sink drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Laundry floor waste OK? 1 Not applicable 0
    No floor waste present 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Washing machine drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Drainage from hot water system OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bath drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Basin floor waste OK 1 Not applicable 0
    No floor waste present 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Shower: floor waste OK? 1 Not applicable 0
    No floor waste present 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
All waste water OK 1 Yes 1
    No 0
Bath area: floor waste OK 1 Not applicable 0
    No floor waste present 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Basin drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Table 14: 4.1 Ability to store and prepare and cook food
Survey data item Score needed for 100% OK Response Score
Kitchen sink spout check OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Sink available? 1 No data 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Fridge temp 1 Not applicable 0
    Good: 4°C or colder 1
    Bad: warmer than 4°C 0
Freezer temp 1 Not applicable 0
    Good: <=-9°C 1
    Bad: > -9°C i.e. not cold enough 0
Fridge/freezer available? 1 Not applicable 0
    None available 0
    Combined fridge/freezer 1
    Fridge with no freezer 0
    Freezer only 0
Oven working OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
All hotplates and knobs working OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
How many kitchens are available? 1 None 0
    1 1
    2 1
Sink drainage OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Kitchen: cold water and tap OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes: both OK 1
    Tap not OK and water supply not OK 0
    Tap not OK, water supply OK 0
    Tap OK but water supply not OK 0
Kitchen: hot water and tap OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Tap OK, hot water OK 1
    Tap not OK, hot water not OK 0
    Tap not OK, hot water OK 0
    Tap OK, hot water not OK 0
Storage area: above bench height and bench area 1 Not applicable 0
    Good: > 5sqm 1
    Bad: < 5sqm 0
Splash back OK 1 Not applicable 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Bench material OK 1 Not applicable 0
    No bench available 0
    Yes 1
    No 0
Cooktop provided 1 Not applicable 0
    None available 0
    Electric 1
    Gas 1
    Wood/oil burning 1

Survey Fix 1 (SF1) and Survey Fix 2 (SF2)

For each community participating in the program, all dwellings were surveyed and fixed at the beginning of the program to determine whether the health hardware and other features of the house were functioning (SF1). Maintenance work was then undertaken and non-functioning items were fixed within budget, with priority being given to critical HLPs. A second survey fix was then conducted for each dwelling (SF2).

Remoteness

The Accessibility/Remoteness Index of Australia (ARIA+) index is used to categorise areas based on their level of remoteness. It is a standard classification sourced from the ABS ASGC (Australian Standard Geographical Classification) and used in the Census. Areas are classified based on the road distance to the nearest service centres in five size categories based on population size. From these measurements, the area is classified into one of the following five categories: major cities, inner regional, outer regional, remote or very remote.

Program

The data cubes include data from a number of programs. The dimension program is broken down into the categories 'FHBH' and 'Housing for Health'. The category 'FHBH' can be further broken down into FHBH 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8. FHBH 1 was funded by the former Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) in 1999-2000. The Department of Families, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs (FaCSIA) funded FHBH 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 programs in 2002-04, 2004, 2004-05, 2007-08, 2007-08 and 2008-09, respectively. A number of other organisations have funded programs and these are grouped into the category 'Housing for Health'.

Number of people per dwelling

The number of people per dwelling is the number of people using the house at and around the time of the survey. It includes all children.