Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2019) The health of Australia’s females, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 27 May 2022.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2019). The health of Australia’s females. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/men-women/female-health
The health of Australia’s females. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 10 December 2019, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/men-women/female-health
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. The health of Australia’s females [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2019 [cited 2022 May. 27]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/men-women/female-health
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2019, The health of Australia’s females, viewed 27 May 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/men-women/female-health
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Burden of disease quantifies the health impact of disease on a population in a given year—both from dying early and from living with disease and injury. The summary measure ‘disability-adjusted life years’ (or DALY) measures the years of healthy life lost from death and illness.
In 2015, females experienced a smaller share of the total disease burden (47%) than males (53%). A larger proportion of the total disease burden for females was caused by living with disease. For males, the greatest proportion of total burden was caused by premature death (AIHW 2019a).
The distribution of overall burden between the sexes varied by disease group. Compared with males, females experience a greater proportion of the total burden from (AIHW 2019a):
Nearly half (44%) of the total burden of disease for females is from cancer, musculoskeletal conditions, and cardiovascular disease.
After cancer, the ranking of disease groups contributing to total burden of disease differed for females and males. For females, musculoskeletal conditions ranked second, followed by mental and substance use disorders, cardiovascular diseases and neurological conditions (AIHW 2019a).
After coronary heart disease, the specific diseases responsible for the most total burden among males and females differed. Among females, dementia ranked second, followed by back pain and problems, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and anxiety disorders (Table 1).
For more information see Australian Burden of Disease Study: impact and causes of illness and death in Australia 2015
Coronary heart disease
Back pain and problems
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
(a) DALY = Disability Adjusted Life-Year.
Chart: AIHW. Source: AIHW 2019a.
ABS (Australian Bureau of Statistics) 2008. National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing: Summary of Results, 2007. ABS cat. no. 4326.0. Canberra: ABS.
ABS 2018a. National Health Survey: First results 2017–18. ABS cat. no. 4364.0.55.001. Canberra: ABS.
ABS 2018b. Life Tables for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2015–2017. ABS cat. no. 3302.0.55.003. Canberra: ABS.
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AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2018. Cancer Data in Australia. Canberra: AIHW.
AIHW 2019a. Australian Burden of Disease Study: impact and causes of illness and death in Australia 2015. Australian Burden of Disease series no.19. Cat. no. BOD 22. Canberra: AIHW.
AIHW 2019b. Endometriosis in Australia: prevalence and hospitalisations. Cat. no. PHE 247. Canberra: AIHW
AIHW 2019c. Australia’s mothers and babies data visualisations. Cat. no. PER 101. Canberra: AIHW.
AIHW 2019d. Australia’s mother and babies 2017—in brief. Perinatal series no. 35. Cat. no. PER 100. Canberra: AIHW.
AIHW 2019e. Deaths in Australia. Cat. no. PHE 229. Canberra: AIHW.
AIHW 2019f. Mortality Over Regions and Time (MORT) books. Cat. no. PHE 229.
AIHW 2019g. Mental health services in Australia: in brief 2019. Cat.no. HSE 228. Canberra: AIHW.
Bywood PT, Raven M & Erny–Albrecht K 2015. Improving health in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander mothers, babies and young children: a literature review. Adelaide: Primary Health Care Research & Information Service.
Kirby Institute 2018. HIV, viral hepatitis and sexually transmissible infections in Australia: annual Surveillance report 2018. Sydney: Kirby Institute.
Lawrence D, Johnson S, Hafekost J, Boterhoven De Haan K, Sawyer M, Ainley J, Zubrick SR (2015) The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents. Report on the second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Department of Health, Canberra
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OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) 2019. Life expectancy at birth (indicator). doi: 10.1787/27e0fc9d-en. Viewed 4 September 2019.
Smith AM, Lyons A, Ferris JA, Richters J, Pitts MK, Shelley JM et al. 2012. Incidence and persistence/recurrence of women’s sexual difficulties: findings from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Health and Relationships. Journal of Sex and Martial Therapy 38(4): 378-39.
WHO (World Health Organization) 2015. State of inequality: reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 3 November 2015.
WHO 2019a. Sexual and reproductive health: defining sexual health. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 11 July 2019.
WHO 2019b. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Key facts. Geneva: WHO. Viewed 25 March 2019.
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