Table of contents

  • Preliminary pages 
    • Title and verso title
    • Contents
    • Acknowledgments
    • Abbreviations
    • Symbols
    • Key points
  • Body section
    • Summary 
    • 1 Introduction
      • Purpose of this report
      • Structure of this report
    • 2 Australian women at a glance
      • Key points
      • Demographic profile
      • Socioeconomic profile
      • Health profile
      • Demographic profile
        • One in two Australians are females
        • Mortality
        • Life expectancy
        • Diversity
      • Socioeconomic profile
        • Income
        • Education
        • Employment
        • Region
        • Women as caregivers
      • Health profile
    • 3 Cardiovascular disease—an overview
      • What is cardiovascular disease?
        • Cause
        • Risk factors and prevention
      • How many women have CVD?
      • How many women die from CVD?
        • Age
      • The burden of CVD
        • Burden overall
        • Burden due to premature death
        • Burden due to poor health or disability
      • Comorbidities with CVD
        • Diabetes
        • Chronic kidney disease
        • Risk factors
        • Depression
        • Comorbidity and complications
        • Services and treatment
        • How common are comorbidities with CVD?
    • 4 Coronary heart disease
      • What is coronary heart disease?
        • Heart attack
        • Angina
        • Symptoms, treatment
        • Risk factors and prevention
      • How many women have CHD?
        • Age
      • How many women die from CHD?
        • Age
        • Survival
      • The burden of CHD
        • Burden overall
        • Burden due to premature death
        • Burden due to poor health or disability
    • 5 Stroke
      • What is stroke?
        • After a stroke
        • Risk factors and prevention
      • How many women have had a stroke?
        • Age
      • How many women die from stroke?
        • Age
      • The burden of stroke
        • Burden overall
        • Burden due to premature death
        • Burden due to poor health or disability
    • 6 Heart failure
      • What is heart failure?
        • Risk factors and prevention
      • How many women have heart failure?
        • Age
      • How many women die from heart failure?
        • Age
      • The burden of heart failure
    • 7 Risk factors, protective factors and associated conditions
      • Part 1: An overview
        • What is a risk factor?
        • What are the risk/protective factors for cardiovascular disease?
        • Level of risk is increased by the level of the risk factor
        • ...and by the number of risk factors
        • Assessing a woman's level of CVD risk
        • Which risk factors should be focused on by individuals, general practitioners and public health strategies?
      • Part 2: Specific risk/protective factors
      • High blood pressure
        • What is high blood pressure?
        • How can we find out how many Australian women have high blood pressure?
        • How many Australian women have high blood pressure?
        • The burden of high blood pressure
      • High blood cholesterol
        • What is high blood cholesterol?
        • How can we find out how many Australian women have high blood cholesterol?
        • How many Australian women have high blood cholesterol?
        • The burden of high blood cholesterol
      • Overweight and obesity
        • What is overweight and obesity?
        • How can we find out how many Australian women are overweight?
        • How many Australian women are overweight or obese?
      • Type 2 Diabetes
        • What is Type 2 diabetes?
        • How many Australian women have Type 2 diabetes?
        • The burden of diabetes
      • Physical activity/inactivity
        • What is physical activity?
        • What is sufficient physical activity?
        • How can we find out how many Australian women are sufficiently active?
        • How many Australian women are not sufficiently active?
        • The burden of physical inactivity
      • Diet (low fruit and vegetable consumption)
        • What is low fruit and vegetable consumption?
        • How can we find out how many Australian women are not eating enough fruit and vegetables?
        • How many Australian women do not eat enough fruit and vegetables?
        • The burden of not eating enough fruit and vegetables
      • Tobacco smoking
        • What is tobacco smoking?
        • How can we find out how many Australian women smoke tobacco?
        • How many Australian women smoke tobacco?
        • The burden of tobacco smoking
        • Tobacco smoking and the contraceptive pill
      • Alcohol consumption
        • What is risky and high-risk alcohol consumption?
        • How can we know how many Australian women drink excessively?
        • How many Australian women are drinking at risky or high-risk levels?
      • Depression and social support
        • Depression
          • How can we find out how many Australian women have depression?
          • How many Australian women have depression?
          • The burden of depression
          • Social support
    • 8 Services and treatments
      • Hospitalisations
        • Cardiovascular disease
        • Coronary heart disease
        • Stroke
        • Heart failure
      • Procedures in hospital
        • Data considerations
        • Coronary angiography
        • Echocardiography
        • CT brain scan
        • MRI brain scan
        • Percutaneous coronary interventions
        • Coronary artery bypass grafting
        • Heart valve repair or replacement
        • Pacemaker insertion
        • Cardiac defibrillator implant
        • Heart transplants
        • Carotid endarterectomy
      • General practice care
        • Key points
        • Cardiovascular disease
        • Ischaemic heart disease
        • Stroke
        • Hypertension
        • Source: 2007-08 Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health program, Australian General Practice Statistics and Classification Centre.
        • Heart failure
      • Medicines
        • Key points
          • Antithrombotic agents
          • Cardiac therapy
          • Diuretics
          • Beta-blocking agents
          • Calcium-channel blockers
          • Agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system
          • Serum-lipid-reducing agents
    • 9 Health care expenditure
      • All cardiovascular disease
    • 10 Cardiovascular disease in context
      • How common are cardiovascular conditions in women compared with other diseases?
      • What are the main causes of death among women?
      • How does the disease burden for cardiovascular conditions in women compare with other diseases?
    • 11 Discussion
  • End matter 
    • Appendix 1: Detailed statistical tables
    • Appendix 2: Methods
      • Statistical methods
        • Prevalence
        • Crude rates
        • Age-specific rates
        • Age-standardised rates
          • Direct age standardisation
        • Significance testing
      • Defining exercise levels in the 2007-08 National Health Survey
      • Hospitalisations
      • Hospital procedures
      • Codes used in this report
        • Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification
        • International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes
        • International Classification of Primary Care Version 2 codes
      • Data sources
    • Glossary
    • References
    • List of tables
    • List of figures
    • List of boxes