Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2022) Mental health services in Australia, AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 05 December 2022.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2022). Mental health services in Australia. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia
Mental health services in Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 10 November 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Mental health services in Australia [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2022 [cited 2022 Dec. 5]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2022, Mental health services in Australia, viewed 5 December 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/mental-health-services/mental-health-services-in-australia
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Data are sourced from the National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD), a collation of data on admitted patient care in Australian hospitals defined by the Admitted Patient Care National Minimum Data Set (APC NMDS). It is possible for individuals to have multiple hospitalisations in any given reference period.
Due to the relatively small number of same day admitted patient mental health-related hospitalisations from public psychiatric hospitals, these hospitalisations have been combined with the public acute hospitals hospitalisations for reporting purposes in this section.
Private hospital same day admitted mental health care data is sourced from the Australian Private Hospitals Association Private Psychiatric Hospitals Data Reporting and Analysis Service (PPHDRAS) and is not comparable with data from the NHMD.
Some state and territory data from the PPHDRAS is aggregated to maintain privacy for participating hospitals. New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory are reported together (NSW/ACT) as are Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania and Northern Territory (WA/SA/Tas/NT). Victoria and Queensland are reported separately.
Remoteness area is coded in accordance with the Australian Bureau of Statistics’ (ABS) Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS) Remoteness Structure to the following categories: Major cities, Inner regional, Outer regional, Remote and Very remote. Due to the relatively small number of patients in outer regional, remote or very remote areas, only Urban (defined as Major cities) versus Non-urban (everywhere else) is reported.
Counts of episodes include only clinically substantive episodes of care. Episodes that are of brief duration (1 or 2 contacts only) and episodes during which contacts were sparse (average interval between contacts 6 weeks or greater) are excluded from the count. Consequently, the count of episodes can in some cases be less than the count of unique patients.
The National Hospital Morbidity Database (NHMD) is a compilation of episode-level records from admitted patient morbidity data collections in Australian hospitals. It includes demographic, administrative and length of stay data for each hospital separation. Clinical information such as diagnoses, procedures undergone and external causes of injury and poisoning are also recorded. For further details on the scope and quality of data in the NHMD, refer to the data quality statement in Admitted patient care: Australian Hospital Statistics 2019–20.
Further information on admitted patient care for the 2019–20 reporting period can be found in the report Admitted patient care 2019–20: Australian hospital statistics (AIHW 2021).
The 2019–20 collection contains data for hospitalisations that occurred between 1 July 2019 and 30 June 2020. Admitted patient episodes of care/hospitalisations that began before 1 July 2019 are included if the separation date fell within the collection period (2019–20). A record is generated for each hospitalisation rather than each patient. Therefore, those patients who had more than one hospitalisation in the reference year will have more than one record in the database.
Specialised mental health care is identified by the patient having one or more psychiatric care days recorded—that is, care was received in a specialised psychiatric unit or ward during that separation. In public acute hospitals, a ‘specialised’ episode of care or separation may comprise some psychiatric care days and some days in general care. An episode of care from a public psychiatric hospital is deemed to comprise psychiatric care days only and to be ‘specialised’, unless some care was given in a unit other than a psychiatric unit, such as a drug and alcohol unit.
Although there are national standards for data on admitted patient care, the results presented here may be affected by variations in admission and reporting practices between states and territories. Interpretation of the differences between states and territories therefore needs to be made with care. The principal diagnosis refers to the diagnosis established after observation by medical staff to be chiefly responsible for the patient’s episode of admitted patient care. For 2019–20, diagnoses are classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 11th revision, Australian Modification (ICD-11-AM 10th edition) (ACCD 2016). Further information on this is included in the technical information section.
For 2019–20, procedures are classified according to the Australian Classification of Health Interventions, 10th edition. Further information on this classification is included in the technical information section. More than one procedure can be reported for a separation and not all hospitalisations have a procedure reported.
The Australian Private Hospitals Association Private Psychiatric Hospitals Data Reporting and Analysis Service (PPHDRAS), previously known as the Private Mental Health Alliance Centralised Data Management Service (PMHA CDMS), was launched in Australia in 2001 to support private hospitals with psychiatric beds to routinely collect and report on a nationally agreed suite of clinical measures and related data for the purposes of monitoring, evaluating and improving the quality of and effectiveness of care. The PPHDRAS works closely with private hospitals, health insurers and other funders (e.g. Department of Veterans’ Affairs) to provide a detailed quarterly statistical reporting service on participating hospitals’ service provision and patient outcomes.
The PPHDRAS fulfils two main objectives. Firstly, it assists participating private hospitals with implementation of their National Model for the Collection and Analysis of a Minimum Data Set with Outcome Measures. Secondly, the PPHDRAS provides hospitals and private health funds with a data management service that routinely prepares and distributes standard reports to assist them in the monitoring and evaluation of health care quality. The PPHDRAS also maintains training resources for hospitals and a database application which enables hospitals to submit de-identified data to the PPHDRAS. The PPHDRAS produces an annual statistical report. In 2019–20, the PPHDRAS accounted for 98% of all private psychiatric beds in Australia (APHA 2020).
The classification of diagnostic groups used by the PPHDRAS is based on the ICD-10 principal diagnosis assigned to the episode of care at discharge. There are 8 clinical groupings of the ICD-10 diagnoses relating to mental and behavioural disorders, they are as follows:
The classification of patients into urban versus non-urban groups was based on the ASGC Remoteness classification of the Postcode of their Area of usual residence, at the first day of care within the financial year. In cases whether the Area of usual residence was missing from that first day’s record, the first valid value for the patient is used. Patients, whose Area of usual residence was in ASGC group Major cities were classified as “Urban”, whilst those in the remaining groups (Inner regional, Outer regional, Remote and Very remote) were classified as “Non-urban”.
Statistics for States and Territories were aggregated in accordance with PPHDRAS policy which, in order to ensure the privacy and confidentiality of both patients and providers, prohibits individual State or Territory statistics being reported in cases where the number of Hospitals is less than 5. As a consequence, statistics for the Australian Capital Territory are aggregated with those for New South Wales; whilst those for South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania and Northern Territory are also aggregated.
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2021. Admitted patient care 2019–20: Australian hospital statistics. Health services series, AIHW. Accessed 12 April 2022.
ACCD (Australian Consortium for Classification Development) 2016. The international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems, 10th revision, Australian modification (ICD-10-AM), Australian Classification of Health Interventions (ACHI) and Australian Coding Standards (ACS), 10th ed. University of Sydney.
APHA (Australian Private Hospitals Association) 2020. Private Hospital-based Psychiatric Services 1 July 2018 to 30 June 2019. APHA.
A separation is classified as mental health-related if:
The definition of same day admitted mental health care is slightly different between the two data sources.
A separation for Public hospitals is classified as same day admitted mental health care if the following apply:
An admission for Private hospitals is classified as same day admitted mental health care based on data reported as ‘Same day episode’ including:
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