Hospital emergency services

Mental health services provided in emergency departments

Hospital emergency departments (EDs) play a role in treating mental illness. People seek mental health-related services in EDs for a variety of reasons, often as an initial point of contact or for after-hours care (Morphet et al. 2012).

State and territory health authorities collect a core set of nationally comparable information on most public hospital ED presentations in their jurisdiction, which is compiled annually into the National Non-Admitted Patient Emergency Department Care Database (NNAPEDCD). The data reported for 2014–15 to 2017–18 is sourced from the NNAPEDCD. Information about mental health-related services provided in EDs prior to 2014–15 was supplied directly to the AIHW by states and territories. As such, any time series including earlier data comparisons should be made with caution (refer to the data source section for more information).

Mental health-related ED presentations in this section are defined as presentations to public hospital EDs that have a principal diagnosis of Mental and behavioural disorders. This definition has a number of limitations. For example, the definition does not fully capture all potential mental health-related presentations to EDs such as intentional self-harm, as intent can be difficult to identify in an ED environment and can also be difficult to code. Therefore, the data presented in this section are likely to under-report the actual number of mental health-related ED presentations. More details about identifying mental health presentations in the NNAPEDCD are available in the data source section.

Data downloads:

Mental health services provided in emergency departments 2017–18 tables (687KB XLS)

Mental health services provided in emergency departments 2017–18 section (688KB)

Data coverage includes the time period 2006–07 to 2017–18. This section was last updated in October 2019.

Key points

  • In 2017–18, 286,985 presentations to public Australian EDs were mental health-related which was 3.6% of all presentations.
  • 78.6% of these mental health-related ED presentations were classified with a triage status of either urgent (patient should be seen within 30 minutes) or semi-urgent (within 60 minutes).
  • 66.8% of mental health-related ED presentations were seen on time (based on triage status) compared with 72% of all ED presentations.
  • More than half (53.5%) of mental health-related ED presentations had a principal diagnosis of either Mental and behavioural disorders due to psychoactive substance use or Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders.

Service provision

States and territories

In 2017–18, there were 286,985 public hospital ED presentations with a mental health-related principal diagnosis recorded, representing 3.6% of all ED presentations. South Australia had the highest mental health-related proportion of ED presentations (4.8%) and the Australian Capital Territory had the lowest proportion (3.1%) (Figure ED.1). Nationally, the rate of mental health-related ED presentations was 115.9 per 10,000 population. The Northern Territory had the highest rate (280.4) and Victoria the lowest (90.1). These differences are likely to be due to varying population characteristics, health-care systems and service delivery practices between states and territories.


Figure ED.1: Per cent of mental health-related presentations of all emergency department presentations in public hospitals, by state and territories, 2017-18

Vertical bar chart showing the rate (per cent) of mental health-related emergency department presentations in public hospitals by state or territory in 2017–18. SA had the highest per cent of mental health-related ED presentations accounting for 4.8% of all ED presentations, followed by 4.4% in the NT, 4.2% in WA, 3.8% in Qld, 3.6% in Tas, 3.3% in NSW, 3.2% in Vic and 3.1% in the ACT. The national result was 3.6%. Refer to Table ED.1.

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