Key concepts

Mental health workforce

Key concept Description
Benchmark data Responses to the surveys have been weighted to benchmark figures to account for non-response based on registration data supplied by AHPRA. For medical practitioners, the benchmark data used are the number of medical practitioners registered by state and territory (using place of principal practice) by main specialty of practice by sex and age group. For nurses and midwives, the benchmark data used are the number of registered practitioners in each state and territory (based on location of principal practice) by division of registration, age group and sex. For psychologists, the benchmark data used are the number of registered practitioners in each state and territory (based on the location of principal practice), by broad registration type by age group by sex. Weighting included an identification of persons with an endorsement of ‘clinical psychology’, ‘clinical neuropsychology’ and ‘other’ (all other psychologists).
Clinical FTE Clinical FTE measures the number of standard-hour workloads worked by employed health professionals in a direct clinical role. Clinical FTE is calculated by the number of health professionals in a category multiplied by the average clinical hours worked by those employed in the category divided by the standard working week hours. The NHWDS considers a standard working week to be 38 hours for nurses and psychologists and 40 hours for psychiatrists.
Clinical hours Clinical hours are the total clinical hours worked per week in the profession, including paid and unpaid work. The average weekly clinical hours is the average of the clinical hours reported by all employed professionals, not only those who define their principal area of work as clinician. Average clinical weekly hours are calculated only for those people who reported their clinical hours (those who did not report them are excluded).
Employed In this report, an employed health professional is defined as one who:
  • worked for a total of 1 hour or more, principally in the relevant profession, for pay, commission, payment in kind or profit; mainly or only in a particular state or territory during a specified period, or
  • usually worked but was away on leave (with some pay) for less than 3 months, on strike or locked out, or rostered off.

This includes those involved in clinical and non clinical roles, for example education, research, and administration. ‘Employed’ people are referred to as the ‘workforce’. This excludes those medical practitioners practising psychiatry as a second or third speciality, those who were on extended leave for 3 months or more and those who were not employed.

Full time equivalent Full time equivalent (FTE) measures the number of standard-hour workloads worked by employed health professionals. FTE is calculated by the number of health professionals in a category multiplied by the average hours worked by those employed in the category divided by the standard working week hours. In this report, a standard working week for nurses and psychologists is assumed to be 38 hours and equivalent to 1 FTE. Like other medical practitioners, FTE measures for psychiatrists are based on a 40 hour standard working week. This differs from the approach used in Mental health services in Australia reports published before 2004–05, and with some earlier AIHW labour force reports. FTE numbers presented in this section will therefore not be easily comparable with those reports.
Nurse

To qualify for registration as a registered or enrolled nurse in Australia, an individual must have completed an approved program of study (AHPRA 2017 ). The usual minimum educational requirement for a registered nurse is a 3-year degree or equivalent. For enrolled nurses the usual minimum educational requirement is a 1-year diploma or equivalent.

A mental health nurse is an enrolled or registered nurse that indicates their principal area of work is mental health.

Psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a qualified medical doctor who has completed specialist training in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental illness and emotional problems. To practice as a psychiatrist in Australia, an individual must be admitted as a Fellow of the Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP). Psychiatrists first train as a medical doctor, then undertake a medical internship followed by a minimum of 5 years specialist training in psychiatry ( RANZCP 2013).
Psychologists Psychologists with general registration who have a recognised higher degree and advanced supervised practice in a particular area of practice can apply for an area of practice endorsement on their general registration ( Psychology Board of Australia 2015). The education and training requirement for general (full) registration is a 6 year sequence comprising a 4 year accredited sequence of study such as an honours degree followed by 2 years of supervised practice as a Provisional Psychologist. The 2 years of supervised practice as a Provisional Psychologist may be undertaken through an internship program or professional postgraduate degree.
Specialist endorsement Registered psychologists who practice in an approved area of psychology may be eligible for a specialist endorsement (Psychology Board of Australia, 2017 ). In order to obtain a specialist endorsement, a registered psychologist must complete formal accredited tertiary study in an approved area of practice, followed by a period of supervised practice (Psychology Board of Australia, 2017 ).
Total hours Total hours are the total hours worked per week in the profession, including paid and unpaid work. Average total weekly hours are calculated only for those people who reported their hours (that is, those who did not report them are excluded).

References

AIHW 2017. AIHW analysis of National Health Workforce Data Set 2016 (unpublished). Canberra: AIHW.

Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency (AHPRA) (2017).Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia: Approved Programs of Study.Viewed 24 April 2018.

Psychology Board of Australia and Australian Health Practitioners Regulation Agency (AHPRA) 2015. Registrant Data: 31 December 2015. Viewed 24 April 2018,

Psychology Board of Australia 2017 Endorsement (Further information): Area of Practice endorsements registration standard (2011) . Viewed 24 April 2018.

RANZCP 2013. Melbourne: Royal Australian & New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. Viewed 24 April 2018.

Alternative text for workforce figures

Figure WK.1

Clustered bar chart showing the number of FTE and clinical FTE psychiatrists per 100,000 population by state or territory in 2016. SA had the highest number of FTE and clinical FTE psychiatrists (15.0 and 12.5 per 100,000 population), followed by Vic (13.8 and 11.4), Qld (13.5 and 11.4), ACT (13.4 and 10.7), NSW (12.5 and 10.2), WA (11.3 and 9.1), Tas (10.7 and 9.0) and NT (8.3 and 6.8). The total was 13.0 FTE and 10.8 clinical FTE psychiatrists. Refer to table WK.3. Back to figure WK.1

Figure WK.2

Clustered bar chart showing the number of FTE and clinical FTE psychiatrists by remoteness area in 2016. Major cities had the highest number of FTE and clinical FTE psychiatrists per 100,000 population (16.0 and 13.2), followed by Remote (6.6 and 5.8), Inner regional (6.1 and 5.2), Outer regional (4.7 and 3.8) and Very remote areas (4.0 and 3.3). The national average total was 13.0 and 10.8. Refer to table WK.4. Back to figure WK.2

Figure WK.3

Clustered bar chart showing psychiatrists’ reported average total and clinical hours worked per week by state or territory in 2016. Psychiatrists employed in Qld reported the highest average total and clinical hours at 41.5 total hours and 34.9 clinical hours, followed by NT (40.8 and 33.5), ACT (40.1 and 31.9), WA (39.2 and 31.5), Tas (38.8 and 32.9), NSW (38.6 and 31.5), SA (38.3 and 31.8), and Vic (37.6 and 31.1). The national average reported was 39.0 total hours and 32.2 clinical hours. Refer to table WK.3.  Back to figure WK.3

Figure WK.4

Line chart showing the proportion of employed psychiatrists by sex from 2012–2016. The proportion of employed female psychiatrists has increased each year from 2012 (35.3%), 2013 (36.3%), 2014 (37.1%), 2015 (37.6%), to 2016 (38.2%). Refer to table WK.1. Back to figure WK.4

Figure WK.5

Clustered bar chart showing the number of FTE and clinical FTE mental health nurses per 100,000 population by state or territory in 2016. Ordered by highest FTE first, WA had the highest number of FTE mental health nurses at 97.9 FTE and 90.5 clinical FTE per 100,000 population, followed by SA (91.5 and 84.4), Vic (85.9 and 78.5), Tas (85.4 and 79.5), NSW (82.6 and 75.5), NT (82.5 and 74.3), Qld (80.8 and 74.6) and the ACT (65.7 and 58.2). The total was 85.1 FTE and 78.1 clinical FTE mental health nurses. Refer to table WK.11. Back to figure WK.5

Figure WK.6

Clustered bar chart showing the number of FTE and clinical FTE mental health nurses per 100,000 population by remoteness area in 2016. Major cities had the highest number of FTE and clinical FTE mental health nurses at 90.8 and 83.4 per 100,000 population, followed by Inner regional (82.1 and 75.2), Remote (57.2 and 53.3), Outer regional (53.7 and 48.7) and Very remote areas (31.1 and 28.6). The national average total was 85.1 and 78.1. Refer to table WK.12. Back to figure WK.6

Figure WK.7

Clustered bar chart showing the average total and clinical hours worked per week by mental health nurses by state or territory in 2016. Mental health nurses in NT reported on average the highest number of total and clinical hours (38.9 and 35.1), followed by WA (36.7 and 33.9), NSW (37.0 and 33.8), Qld (36.4 and 33.6), ACT (36.5 and 32.3), Tas (35.4 and 33.0), Vic (35.7 and 32.6) and SA (35.1 and 32.4). The national total average was 36.3 total and 33.3 clinical hours. Refer to table WK.11. Back to figure WK.7

Figure WK.8

Stacked vertical bar chart showing mental health nurses by age group and sex in 2016. The majority of mental health nurses were aged between 55–64 (27.5%), closely followed by 45–54 years (26.2%), less than 35 years (20.8%), 35–44 years (20.3%), and 65 years and older (5.2%). The proportion of females per age group compared to males was greatest for those aged between 55–64 years, followed by 45–54 years. Refer to Table WK.9. Back to figure WK.8

Figure WK.9

Line chart showing the proportion of employed mental health nurses by sex from 2012–16. The proportion of female mental health nurses has remained relatively stable from at 68.5% in 2012 to 69.2% in 2016. Refer to Table WK.9. Back to figure WK.9

Figure WK.10

Clustered bar chart showing the number of FTE and clinical FTE psychologists per 100,000 population by state or territory in 2016. Ordered by highest FTE first, ACT had the greatest number of FTE and clinical FTE psychologists with 155.0 FTE and 107.1 clinical FTE per 100,000, followed by Vic (95.3 and 68.1), NSW (92.7 and 67.5), WA (88.0 and 65.9), Qld (82.7 and 59.2), Tas (74.2 and 56.5), NT (72.2 and 47.2) and SA (64.7 and 48.6). The national average total was 89.3 and 64.7. Refer to table WK.19. Back to figure WK.10

Figure WK.11

Clustered bar chart showing the number of FTE and clinical FTE psychologists per 100,000 population by remoteness area in 2016. Major cities had the highest number of FTE and clinical FTE psychologists at 103.8 FTE and 74.5 clinical FTE per 100,000 population, followed by Inner regional areas (60.6 and 46.2), Outer regional (44.8 and 34.1), Remote (33.9 and 23.8) and Very remote areas (21.5 FTE and 14.8). The national average total was 89.3 and 64.7. Refer to Table WK.20 Back to figure WK.11

Figure WK.12

Clustered bar chart showing the average total and clinical hours worked by psychologists by state or territory in 2016. NT psychologists reported working on average the highest number of total and clinical hours at 36.6 total and 23.9 clinical hours, followed by ACT (34.2 and 23.7), QLD (34.1 and 24.4) SA (32.5 and 24.4), Tas (32.4 and 24.6), NSW (32.3 and 23.5), WA (32.2 and 24.2) and Vic (31.9 and 22.8). The national average total was 32.6 and 23.6. Refer to table WK.19. Back to figure WK.12

Figure WK.13

Stacked vertical bar chart showing the proportion of employed psychologists by sex and age group in 2016. The majority of employed psychologists were aged between 35–44 (28.3%), followed by 45–54 years (22.7%), less than 35 years (20.9%), 55–64 years (18.8%) and 65 and older (9.2%). The proportion of female psychologists by age group was highest for those aged between 35–44 followed by those aged less than 35 years. Refer to Table WK.17. Back to figure WK.13