Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2021. Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Cat. no. PHE 221. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 09 May 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2021). Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 16 April 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2021 [cited 2021 May. 9]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2021, Alcohol, tobacco & other drugs in Australia, viewed 9 May 2021, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/alcohol/alcohol-tobacco-other-drugs-australia
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More information is available in the New (and emerging) psychoactive substances fact sheet.
New (and emerging) psychoactive substances (NPS) may be defined as substances, whether in a pure form or preparation, where most are not controlled by international drug control conventions but which may pose a public health threat (UNODC 2020b). NPS often mimic the effects of existing illicit substances (AIHW 2020). There are several main types of NPS, including:
Other names given to this group of drugs include research chemicals, analogues, legal highs, herbal highs, bath salts, novel psychoactive substances and synthetic drugs (NDARC 2016).
Currently, NPS have been reported in 125 countries and territories in all regions of the world. Over 1,000 substances have been reported to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Early Warning Advisory, by Governments, laboratories and partner organisations (UNODC 2020a).
In Australia, the NPS market is highly dynamic with fluctuations in the types of NPS available (Burns et al. 2014). The Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission (ACIC 2020) recently reported:
The use of synthetic cannabinoids in Australia is low.
The use of other NPS among the Australian general population is similarly low.
Figure NPS1: Lifetime and recent use of synthetic cannabis and emerging psychoactive substances, people aged 14 and over, 2013 to 2019 (per cent)
The figure shows the proportion of people aged 14 and over who recently used synthetic cannabis and new and emerging psychoactive substances in 2013, 2016 and 2019. Recent use of both synthetic cannabis and new and emerging psychoactive substances declined between 2013 and 2019 (from 1.2% to 0.2% and 0.4% to 0.1%, respectively).
NPS comprise a wide range of chemical substances with unpredictable effects that can result in severe adverse health consequences, including death (UNODC 2020b). Due to the wide variety of NPS and their ever-changing purity and composition, information on the long-term adverse effects or risks are still largely unknown (UNODC 2015).
The use of NPS has been linked to health problems, including (but not limited to):
The laws surrounding NPS are complex and vary between Australian jurisdictions.
ACIC (Australian Criminal Intelligence Commission) 2019. Illicit Drug Data Report 2017–18. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 7 August 2019.
ACIC 2020. Illicit Drug Data Report 2018–19. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 21 October 2020.
ACIC 2021. National Wastewater Drug Monitoring Program Report 12. Canberra: ACIC. Viewed 1 March 2021.
AIHW (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare) 2020. National Drug Strategy Household Survey 2019. Drug statistics series no. 32. Cat. no. PHE 270. Canberra: AIHW. Viewed 16 July 2020.
Burns L, Roxburgh A, Matthews A, Bruno R, Lenton S & Buskirk JV 2014. The rise of new psychoactive substance use in Australia. Drug Testing and Analysis 6:846–849.
Guerin, N. & White, V. (2020). ASSAD 2017 Statistics & Trends: Australian Secondary Students’ Use of Tobacco, Alcohol, Over-the-counter Drugs, and Illicit Substances. Second Edition. Cancer Council Victoria. Viewed 21 July 2020.
NDARC (National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre) 2016. New (and emerging) psychoactive substances (NPS) fact sheet. Viewed 21 December 2017.
NSW Ministry of Health 2017. A quick guide to drugs & alcohol, 3rd edn. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre.
Peacock A, Karlsson A, Uporova J, Price O, Chan R, Swanton R et al. 2020. Australian Drug Trends 2020: Key Findings from the National Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) Interviews. Sydney: National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, UNSW Sydney.
UNODC (United Nations Office on Drug and Crime) 2015. UNODC early warning advisory on new psychoactive substances. Viewed 21 December 2017.
UNODC 2020a. Current NPS Threats Volume III. October 2020. Vienna: UNODC. Viewed 21 October 2020.
UNODC 2020b. World Drug Report 2020. Vienna: UNODC. Viewed 28 July 2020.
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