Table of contents

  • Preliminary material
    • Title and verso pages
    • Contents
    • Acknowledgments
    • Abbreviations
    • Symbols
    • Summary
      • Patterns of drug use
        • Tobacco and alcohol
        • Illicit drugs
      • Services related to drug use or treatment
        • Substance use—specific services
        • Other services
      • Vulnerable groups
      • Drugs and crime
  • Body section
    • 1 Introduction
      • 1.1 Data sources
    • 2 Tobacco
      • 2.1 Key findings
      • 2.2 Introduction
      • 2.3 Attitudes and opportunity to use
      • 2.4 Reported consumption
        • 2.4.1 Trends
        • 2.4.2 Age and sex
        • 2.4.3 Younger people and school students
        • 2.4.4 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
        • 2.4.5 Socioeconomic status
        • 2.4.6 Other social characteristics
      • 2.5 Cessation attempts
      • 2.6 Apparent consumption
      • 2.7 Tobacco-related costs, revenue and expenditure
      • 2.8 State, territory and international comparisons
        • 2.8.1 State and territory comparisons
        • 2.8.2 International comparisons
      • 2.9 Health and harms
        • 2.9.1 Health of smokers
        • 2.9.2 Second-hand smoke
          • In the home
          • In the workplace
        • 2.9.3 Social issues associated with smoking
    • 3 Alcohol
      • 3.1 Key findings
      • 3.2 Introduction
      • 3.3 Attitudes and opportunity to use
      • 3.4 Reported consumption
        • 3.4.1 Trends
        • 3.4.2 Age and sex
        • 3.4.3 Risk levels
          • Risk of alcohol-related harm from a single drinking occasion
          • Risk of alcohol-related harm over a lifetime
        • 3.4.4 Social characteristics
      • 3.5 Apparent consumption
      • 3.6 Alcohol-related costs, revenue and expenditure
      • 3.7 Polydrug use
      • 3.8 Reduction and cessation of consumption
      • 3.9 State, territory and international comparisons
        • 3.9.1 State and territory comparisons
        • 3.9.2 International comparisons
      • 3.10 Health and harms
        • 3.10.1 Mental health
        • 3.10.2 Social harms
    • 4 Illicit drugs overview
      • 4.1 Key findings
      • 4.2 Introduction
      • 4.3 Attitudes
      • 4.4 Consumption
        • 4.4.1 Age and sex
        • 4.4.2 Trends
        • 4.4.3 Concurrent drug use
      • 4.5 International comparisons
      • 4.6 Costs and expenditure
      • 4.7 Health and harms
        • 4.7.1 Mental health
        • 4.7.2 Social harms
    • 5 Cannabis
      • 5.1 Key findings
      • 5.2 Introduction
      • 5.3 Attitudes and opportunity to use
      • 5.4 Reported consumption
        • 5.4.1 Trends
        • 5.4.2 Characteristics of recent cannabis users
        • 5.4.3 Place of use
        • 5.4.4 Attempts to reduce use
      • 5.5 State and territory comparisons
      • 5.6 Health and harms
        • 5.6.1 Self-reported health status of cannabis users
        • 5.6.2 Psychological distress
      • 5.7 Recent use of cannabis among population sub-groups
        • Use among ecstasy and related drug users
        • Use among injecting drug users
        • Use among prisoners
        • Use among police detainees
      • 5.8 Supply reduction
    • 6 Illicit drugs other than cannabis
      • 6.1 Key findings
      • 6.2 Introduction
      • 6.3 Attitudes and opportunity to use
        • 6.4.1 Any illicit drug, excluding cannabis
        • 6.4.2 Ecstasy use
        • 6.3.1 Meth/amphetamine use
        • 6.3.2 Cocaine use
        • 6.3.3 Use of other illicit drugs
        • 6.3.4 Frequency of use
      • 6.5 Social characteristics
      • 6.6 State and territory comparisons
      • 6.7 Illicit drugs and health
        • 6.3.5 Mortality
        • 6.3.6 Non-fatal overdoses
        • 6.3.7 Self-reported health status
          • Health conditions including mental illness
        • 6.3.8 Injecting drug use and health
    • 7 Pharmaceuticals
      • 7.1 Key findings
      • 7.2 Introduction
        • 7.2.1 Data sources
      • 7.3 Prescription medicines
        • 7.3.1 Prescribing patterns of general practitioners
        • 7.3.2 Volume
        • 7.3.3 Cost to the Australian Government
        • 7.3.4 Defined daily dose
      • 7.4 Community prescriptions for major drug groups
      • 7.5 Pharmaceutical misuse
        • 7.5.1 How are pharmaceuticals diverted?
        • 7.5.2 Pharmaceutical misuse among the general population
          • Use of pharmaceuticals for non-medical purposes
          • Frequency of use
          • Source of supply
        • 7.5.3 Use among police watch-house detainees
        • 7.5.4 Use among prisoners
    • 8 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
      • 8.1 Key findings
      • 8.2 Introduction
      • 8.3 Data sources
      • 8.4 Tobacco
        • 8.4.1 Attitudes
        • 8.4.2 Current use
        • 8.4.3 Trends
        • 8.4.4 Age and sex
        • 8.4.5 Indigenous and non-Indigenous comparisons
        • 8.4.6 Cessation behaviour
      • 8.5 Alcohol
        • 8.5.1 Current use
        • 8.5.2 Trends
        • 8.5.3 Age and sex
        • 8.5.4 Indigenous and non-Indigenous comparisons
        • 8.5.5 Cessation behaviours
      • 8.6 Illicit drugs
        • 8.6.1 Current use
        • 8.6.2 Age and sex
        • 8.6.3 Comparisons with other Australians
        • 8.6.4 Cessation behaviours
      • 8.7 Health and harms
        • 8.7.1 Morbidity and mortality
        • 8.7.2 Self-reported health status
        • 8.7.3 Drug use issues managed by general practitioners
        • 8.7.4 Passive smoking
        • 8.7.5 Mental health
        • 8.7.6 Injecting drug use
        • 8.7.7 Other harms
    • 9 Life stages
      • 9.1 Key findings
      • 9.2 Introduction
      • 9.3 School students
        • 9.3.1 Tobacco use
        • 9.3.2 Alcohol use
        • 9.3.3 Illicit drug use
      • 9.4 Employment and workforce participation
        • 9.4.1 Smoking status
        • 9.4.2 Alcohol use patterns
          • Alcohol risk
        • 9.4.3 Illicit drug use
        • 9.4.4 Drug use among employed people
      • 9.5 Pregnancy
        • 9.5.1 Smoking during pregnancy
        • 9.5.2 Other drug use during pregnancy
      • 9.6 Families
        • 9.6.1 Smoking status
        • 9.6.2 Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke
        • 9.6.3 Alcohol risk and families
        • 9.6.4 Illicit drug use
    • 10 Services
      • 10.1 Key findings
      • 10.2 Introduction
      • 10.3 Alcohol and other drug treatment
      • 10.4 Treatment agencies
      • 10.5 Treatment clients
      • 10.6 What drugs are clients concerned about?
        • 10.6.1 Trends
        • 10.6.2 Age and sex
        • 10.6.3 Injecting drug use
      • 10.7 What treatment do clients receive?
        • Counselling
        • Withdrawal management (detoxification)
        • Rehabilitation
        • Assessment only
        • Information and education only
        • Support and case management only
        • Other
      • 10.8 Current treatment and trends
        • 10.8.1 Age and sex
      • 10.9 Referral sources and cessation reasons
        • 10.9.1 Referral
        • 10.9.2 Reasons for cessation
      • 10.10 Other alcohol and drug treatment data
        • 10.10.1 Opioid substitute pharmacotherapy
        • 10.10.2 Indigenous services
        • 10.10.3 Needle and syringe programs
        • 10.10.4 Survey data
      • 10.11 Other services that may assist people with alcohol and other drug issues
        • 10.11.1 GP visits
        • 10.11.2 Hospital treatment (morbidity)
        • 10.11.3 Homelessness services
        • 10.11.4 Mental health services
    • 11 Crime and law enforcement
      • 11.1 Key findings
      • 11.2 Introduction
      • 11.3 Illicit drug offences
        • 11.3.1 Illicit drug arrests
        • 11.3.2 Prison census statistics
      • 11.4 Drug use and criminal offending
        • 11.4.1 Drug use among police detainees
      • 11.5 Prisoners' self-reported drug use
        • 11.5.1 Tobacco
        • 11.5.2 Drug use among juvenile detainees
          • Prevalence of drug use
          • Frequency of drug use
          • Substance use and crime
      • 11.6 Self-reported crime by injecting drug users
      • 11.7 Illicit drug purity and detections
        • 11.7.1 Purity of illicit drugs
        • 11.7.2 Australian border detections of illicit drugs
          • Border detections of heroin
          • Border detections of amphetamine-type stimulants
          • Cannabis border detections
        • 11.7.3 Australian domestic drug detection
          • Detection of drug laboratories
          • Cannabis detections
  • End matter
    • Appendix A - Poisons Standard Schedule categories
    • References
    • List of tables
    • List of figures