Ear disease and associated hearing loss are significant health problems for Indigenous children, and also contribute to poor educational achievement, higher unemployment, and, as a consequence, greater contact with the criminal justice system later in life. Thus, preventing ear disease in Indigenous children is a high priority. This resource sheet reviews past and current programs, research and strategies for the prevention and treatment of ear disease in Indigenous children. It examines what works, what doesn't, and what further research is needed. Risk factors, incidence, and prevalence are also noted.