Maternal deaths in Australia 2008–2012 is the 16th report on women who die in association with pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal death review is one of the oldest known forms of clinical care quality assurance. Maternal death in Australia is a rare event in the context of worldwide maternal deaths. In 2008–2012, there were 105 maternal deaths in Australia that occurred within 42 days of the end of pregnancy, representing a maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 7.1 deaths per 100,000 women who gave birth. All such deaths should be seen as devastating for the woman’s family and community, and should be carefully examined for possible lessons learned that may prevent future similar events.