This report examines the health issues facing Vietnam veterans and their families. It reports on the medical validation of a number of selected conditions found to have a high prevalence in veterans and their children. The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare coordinated the medical validation through disease registers and clinicians with the consent of veterans and their children. This report describes the aims, the methods and the results of this validation process and compares the results with the levels expected within the Australian community. The report also recommends further action in following up the patterns of disease and death in veterans and their children.