What’s next?

Data from the 2021 Census and other sources can be further analysed to identify differences in disease outcomes and health service use patterns among people from CALD backgrounds. Future investigations could include examining outcomes for people from different CALD backgrounds with particular long-term conditions compared with those who speak ‘English only’, investigating lower reporting of mental health conditions in relation to mental health service use, and more detailed analyses of CALD variables of interest, such as proficiency in spoken English. This information will assist service providers in understanding ways in which public health messages and health service provision can be adapted to better address the needs of this diverse group.