The National Bowel Cancer Screening Program aims to reduce mortality and morbidity from bowel cancer by maximising early detection. Bowel cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in Australia. National Bowel Cancer Screening Program monitoring report 2008 is the second annual report based on key program activity, performance and outcome indicators to monitor the achievements of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program. The report presents the most recent information on participation in bowel screening, cancer detection, program sensitivity and re-screening rates. In addition, the report presents national bowel cancer incidence and mortality data to provide a context for these indicators of screening activity. Where possible, the data are presented by state and territory, as well as nationally.This report will be relevant to anyone with an interest in population health or bowel screening, including health planners and administrators, various health practitioners, academic researchers and the general public.