The incidence of end-stage kidney disease is an important indicator of the health of the Australian population and valuable for healthcare planning. In the past we have been limited to counting only individuals treated with dialysis or transplant. However it is recognised that many people with end-stage kidney disease might not receive these treatments for a variety of reasons. This report presents a new method for counting the total incidence of end-stage kidney disease which also includes those not treated with dialysis or transplant. This method indicates that for every new case treated with dialysis or transplant there is one that is not, although the vast majority of these are elderly.