This publication by the AIHW Dental Statistics and Research Unit presents the results of The Child Dental Health Survey, Australia 2002 and examines the differences in oral health of children residing in areas of different concentration of fluoride in the public water supply. The findings demonstrate that decay experience differs across areas of different water fluoride concentration, with children residing in areas with water fluoridation having better oral health than children residing in areas with no or negligible fluoride concentrations in the public water. The publication also reveals the state of oral health in Australia's school-age children, including age-specific and age-standardised measures of dental decay experience within each state and territory, and national estimates of these measures for 2002. Australian children experience low levels of dental decay compared to their international counterparts. However, a minority of children still experience extensive decay and carry most of the burden of this disease. Information regarding children's oral health can serve as a guide for policy development in order to further improve the oral health of, and service delivery to, Australian children.