The Indigenous population experiences higher rates of homelessness and overcrowding than the non-Indigenous population. Whilst non-Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of affordability need, houses are least affordable for Indigenous Australians living in major cities. The number of additional dwellings required to address these problems is estimated to be 9,795. Since the 2005 report, connection to essential services and levels of overcrowding have improved, however, dwelling condition has deteriorated. Indigenous housing needs 2009: a multi-measure needs model presents the most recent data on the level of Indigenous housing need across five dimensions, estimates the current dwelling need gap and provides projections of Indigenous housing need.