Significant health disparities exist between indigenous and non-indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. But how can policy makers reduce these disparities if high-quality data isn't available? The International Group for Indigenous Health Measurement is committed to the highest quality collection, dissemination, and use of data related to indigenous health. The second meeting of the Group was held in Canberra, November 2006. In this publication you will find the proceedings of that meeting including abstracts and biographies and also information on how these different countries identify, collect and count data on their indigenous populations.