What we know

  • There is some evidence, in the form of critical descriptions of programs and systematic reviews, on the benefits to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities from participation in sport and recreational programs. These include some improvements in school retention, attitudes towards learning, social and cognitive skills, physical and mental health and wellbeing; increased social inclusion and cohesion; increased validation of and connection to culture; and crime reduction.
  • Although the effects of sports and recreation programs can be powerful and transformative, these effects tend to be indirect. For example, using these programs to reduce juvenile antisocial behaviour largely work through diversion, providing alternative safe opportunities to risk taking, maintenance of social status, as well as opportunities to build healthy relationships with Elders and links with culture.
  • Although Indigenous Australians have lower rates of participation in sport than non-Indigenous people, surveys suggest that around one-third of Indigenous people participate in some sporting activity (ABS 2010). That makes sports a potentially powerful vehicle for encouraging Indigenous communities to look at challenging personal and community issues.
  • Within Indigenous communities, a strong component of sport and recreation is the link with traditional culture. Cultural activities such as hunting are generally more accepted as a form of sport and recreation than traditional dance. Therefore sport and recreation are integral in understanding ‘culture’ within Indigenous communities, as well as highlighting the culture within which sport and recreation operate.

What works

There are a range of benefits pertaining to participation in sports and recreation activities. In the absence of evaluation evidence, below is a list of principles of ‘what works’ and ‘what doesn’t work’ to assist with sport and recreation program implementation.

  • Providing a quality program experience heightens engagement in the sports or recreational activity.
  • Where no activity has been previously made available, offering some type of sport or recreation program to fill that void should be given priority over making selective decisions about which program to carry out.
  • Linking sports and recreation programs with other services and opportunities (for example, health services or counselling; jobs or more relevant educational programs) improves the uptake of these allied services. This assists in developing links to other important programs for improving health and wellbeing outcomes, or behavioural change.
  • For sporting programs, providing long-term sustained, regular contact between experienced sportspeople and participants allows time to consolidate new skills and benefits that flow from involvement in the program.
  • Promoting a program rather than a desired outcome improves the uptake of activities—for example, a physical fitness program is more likely to be well used if promoted as games or sports rather than a get-fit campaign.
  • Involving the community in the planning and implementation of programs promotes cultural appropriateness, engagement and sustainability.
  • Keeping participants’ costs to a minimum ensures broad access to programs.
  • Scheduling activities at appropriate times enhances engagement—for example, for young people, after school, weekends and during school holidays, when they are most likely to have large amounts of unsupervised free time.
  • Facilitating successful and positive risk taking provides an alternative to inappropriate risks.
  • Creating a safe place through sports or recreation activities, where trust has been built, allows for community members to work through challenges and potential community and personal change without fear of retribution or being stigmatised.
  • Ensuring stable funding and staffing is crucial to developing sustainable programs.

What doesn’t work

  • Some sports activities can contribute to exclusion on the basis of race, class or gender, for example football tends to exclude females, so adjunct programs need to be run, or more inclusive activities selected.
  • Expecting too much from a program (for example, having an expectation that a sports program will eliminate substance abuse or antisocial behaviour). Programs need to be linked to other services and programs to maximise positive outcomes.
  • Expensive activities, or those that do not engender broad community interest, can increase social exclusion.
  • Promoting the wrong focus—for example, badging a program as a health program rather than a games program—reduces its attractiveness to young people.
  • Programs that are not developed in conjunction with the target community are less likely to have buy-in.

What we don’t know

  • Many of the positive effects of participating in sports or recreational activities are indirect and long term, generally making it not feasible to categorically state causal links between programs and specific outcomes. Therefore, it is important that policymakers and researchers continue to refine indirect measures, as well as building a body of documented and evaluated programs that demonstrate effectiveness through these indirect measures. Solid program logic (that is, the logic or reasoning upon which the program is based) may assist with this.
  • There is very limited literature on ways to address gender, financial and other barriers to participation in sports and recreation programs.
  • Although the non-Indigenous literature on elite sports notes some problems with drug abuse among athletes, it is not clear in Indigenous-specific literature whether this is a problem, and if so, how it could be managed.
  • The literature reviewed here does not discuss which types of programs are better suited to specific geographic locations (such as remote regions), ages or genders. Studies exploring these issues could make a valuable contribution to understanding where to target specific types of programs.
  • Longitudinal studies of program outcomes would help to capture and assess the magnitude of those benefits of sports and recreation programs that appear to take longer to emerge than the average program funding cycle would allow.