Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of impaired or reduced kidney function lasting at least 3 months. A person who has the most severe form of CKD, end-stage kidney disease, usually requires a kidney transplant or dialysis to survive. CKD is more common than is widely knowing, affecting 1 in 10 Australians adults (1.7 million people) and contributing to 1 in 9 deaths. The elderly, Indigenous Australians and people living in remote and socioeconomically disadvantaged areas are at an increased risk of CKD.