Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander: A person of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander descent who identifies as an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander. See also First Nations people.
age-standardised rate (ASR): A rate that takes into account the age structure of the population using age-standardisation techniques.
Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS): Common framework defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) for collecting and disseminating geographically classified statistics.
avoidable deaths: Deaths from conditions that are potentially preventable through individualised care and/or treatable through existing primary or hospital care.
avoidable fatal burden: The burden due to deaths among those aged under 75 that are considered avoidable given timely and effective health care. Expressed as AYLL in this report.
cause (ABDS): A disease or injury included on the ABDS disease list that forms the analytical framework of the 2018 ABDS, and underpins all estimates of deaths, YLL, YLD, DALY and risk-attributable burden.
cause of death: All diseases, morbid conditions, or injuries that either resulted in or contributed to death – and the circumstances of the accident or violence that produced any such injuries – that are entered on the Medical Certificate of Cause of Death. Causes of death are commonly reported by the underlying cause of death.
chronic condition: A health condition that is persistent and long lasting.
crude rate: A rate is one number (the numerator) divided by another number (the denominator). The numerator is commonly the number of years of healthy life lost in a specified time. The denominator is the population at risk of the event are generally multiplied by a number such as 1,000 to create whole numbers.
disease: A broad term that can be applied to any health problem, including symptoms, diseases, injuries and certain risk factors, such as high blood cholesterol and obesity. Often used synonymously with condition, disorder or problem.
fatal burden: The burden from dying prematurely as measured by years of life lost. Often used synonymously with years of life lost, and also referred to as ‘life lost’.
First Nations people: People who have identified themselves, or have been identified by a representative (for example, their parent or guardian), as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin. See also Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander.
Indigenous Regions (IREGs): Large geographic areas which were originally designed based on the former Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission boundaries. Part of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).
Indigenous status: Whether a person has identified themselves, or has been identified by a representative (for example, their parent or guardian), as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin.
International Classification of Diseases (ICD): The World Health Organization’s internationally accepted classification of diseases and related health conditions. The 10th revision, Australian modification (ICD-10-AM) is currently in use in Australian hospitals for admitted patients.
life expectancy: The number of years a person of a particular age can expect to live.
non-fatal burden: The burden from living with ill-health as measured by years lived with disability. Often used synonymously with years lived with disability.
potentially preventable hospitalisation (PPH): Admission to hospital for conditions where hospitalisation could have potentially been prevented through the provision of appropriate individualised preventative health interventions and early disease management usually delivered in primary care and community-based care settings (including by general practitioners, medical specialists, dentists, nurses and allied health professionals).
premature mortality: Deaths that occur at a younger age than a selected cut-off.
rate: A rate is one number (the numerator) divided by another number (the denominator). The numerator is commonly the number of years of healthy life lost in a specified time. The denominator is the population at risk of the event are generally multiplied by a number such as 1,000 to create whole numbers.
risk factor: Any factor that represents a greater risk of a health condition or health event.
years lived with disability (YLD): The number of years of what could have been a healthy life that were instead spent in states of less than full health. YLD represent non-fatal burden.
years of life lost (YLL): The number of years of life lost due to premature death, defined as dying before the ideal life span. YLL represent fatal burden.