This report contains comprehensive information relating to adoptions in Australia, including characteristics of adopted children, adoptive families and birth mothers. During 2009-10 there were 412 finalised adoptions across Australia-the lowest annual number recorded since reporting commenced. Of these adoptions: 54% were intercountry, 15% were local and 31% were `known' child adoptions; 65% of adopted children were aged less than 5 years. The majority of intercountry adoptees came from the Asian region (82%). The three most common countries of origin in Asia were the Philippines (22%), China (14%), and South Korea (14%). Ethiopia was the most common country of origin outside the Asian region (15%).