Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2017) Risk factors to health., AIHW, Australian Government, accessed 28 January 2022
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2017). Risk factors to health. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/risk-factors/risk-factors-to-health
Risk factors to health. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 07 August 2017, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/risk-factors/risk-factors-to-health
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Risk factors to health [Internet]. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2017 [cited 2022 Jan. 28]. Available from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/risk-factors/risk-factors-to-health
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) 2017, Risk factors to health, viewed 28 January 2022, https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/risk-factors/risk-factors-to-health
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The food and beverages we eat and drink (our diet) play an important role in our overall health and wellbeing. Food provides energy, nutrients and other components that, if provided in insufficient or excess amounts can result in ill health. The conditions often affected by our diet include coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, some forms of cancer, type 2 diabetes, dental caries, gall bladder disease and nutritional anaemias.
Ill health generally cannot be attributed to any one food component alone. Diseases associated with diet are also associated with environmental, behavioural, biological, societal and genetic factors. The complex interplay between food and other risk factors and disease make it difficult to assess the contribution of diet to ill health.
In an optimal diet, the supply of required energy and nutrients is adequate for tissue maintenance, repair and growth. The proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals required to maintain the human body in good health are met by eating a wide variety of nutritious foods.
More information on diet, nutrition and health can be found at the Eat for Health website.
The Australian Dietary Guidelines , developed by the National Health and Medical Research Council in 2013, recommend consumption of a wide variety of nutritious food. Essential nutrients for good health are found in varying amounts throughout many different food groups. Variety in a diet maximises the possibility of obtaining enough of these essential nutrients.
The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend adults, adolescents and children:
Each Guideline is considered to be equally important in terms of public health outcomes.
The Australian Dietary Guidelines recommend that adults eat 2 serves of fruit and 5–6 serves of vegetables per day. For children and adolescents, depending on age and sex, the recommendations are for 1–2 serves of fruit and 2½ and 5½ serves of vegetables. There are different guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women .
A standard serve of fruit is about 150 grams, and a serve of vegetables is about 75 grams. Examples of serves include:
For more information on the amounts and kinds of food that you need each day to get enough nutrients essential for good health visit the Eat for Health website.
Based on self-reported data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) 2014–15 National Health Survey (NHS) , 1 in 2 people aged 18 and over (50%) did not eat the recommended 2 serves of fruit, while over 9 in 10 (93%) did not eat the recommended 5 serves of vegetables .
The proportion of adults with inadequate vegetable intake was similar across age groups (Figure 1). Fruit intake was worse among young people: more than half (57%) of those aged 18–24 had inadequate fruit intake, compared to one-third (35%) of people aged 85 and over.
Source: National Health Survey: First Results, 2014–15. ABS cat. no. 4364.0.55.001. Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics (see source data).
The Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) are a set of recommendations for Australians' nutritional intake that have been developed by the NHMRC. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) sets a nutrient level that is used to estimate the prevalence of inadequate intakes across the population, while intakes above the Upper Level (UL) increases the risk of adverse health effects .
The ABS 2011–12 Australian Health Survey (AHS) indicates that:
Sodium (often referred to as salt) is an important nutrient in the diet; however, too much sodium can increase blood pressure, which increases the risk of developing heart and kidney problems . While sodium is found naturally in foods such as milk, cream, eggs and meat, the main source in the diet is from processed foods where sodium acts as a flavour enhancer and preservative.
The 2011–12 AHS showed that a large proportion of the population exceeded the UL for sodium, particularly younger age groups. Among children aged 2–8, almost all males exceeded the UL, as did approximately 95% of females (Figure 2).
In general, more males exceeded the UL than females and this difference was more pronounced for every age group over 9 years.
It should be noted that the sodium intake levels to estimate disease burden due to sodium in the Australian Burden of Disease Study 2011 (ABDS 2011) do not align with the UL, as it is used for the purpose of calculating disease burden in the ABDS 2011 .
Source: ABS 2015. Australian Health Survey: Usual Nutrient Intakes, 2011–12, ABS cat. no. 4364.0.55.008, Canberra: Australian Bureau of Statistics (see source data).
In the Australian population aged 2 and over, 12% of average energy intake came from saturated fat (including trans fatty acids), which is above the recommended level of no more than 10%. Between 1995 and 2011–12, saturated fat content of the diet decreased by 1 percentage point (a statistically significant reduction) .
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