Cardiovascular disease poses a heavy burden on the health of Australians. Coronary heart disease and stroke are its most costly manifestations, in terms of deaths, disability and health system costs. Risk factors for heart disease and stroke remain very common among Australians, including those with established cardiovascular disease. For the latter in particular, it is imperative to try and prevent further cardiovascular events. This paper identifies gaps and deficiencies in our knowledge in relation to secondary prevention and rehabilitation after coronary heart disease and stroke, including incidence, interventions and outcomes at a national level and suggests possible solutions.