- The 2006 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population was estimated to be about 517,000, constituting 2.5% of the total Australian population.
- The Indigenous population has a relatively young age structure. In 2006, the median age was 21 years, compared with 37 years for the non-Indigenous population.
- In 2008, nearly half (49%) of all Indigenous households were composed of families with dependent children, more than a third (39%) of which were one-parent families.
Determinants of health and welfare
- Younger Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults have completed more years of schooling than their parents. In 2008, of those aged 25–34 years, more than three‑quarters (78%) had completed Year 10 or above, compared with less than one-quarter (27%) of those aged 55 years and over.
- The Year 12 retention rate for Indigenous students rose from 31% in 1995 to 45% in 2009.
- Less than two-thirds (65%) of working-age Indigenous Australians were in the labour force in 2008, compared with nearly 4 out of 5 (79%) non-Indigenous Australians.
- In 2008, Indigenous households were nearly 2.5 times as likely to be in the lowest income bracket and 4 times less likely to be in the top income bracket as non-Indigenous households.
- Nearly half of all Indigenous children were living in jobless families in 2006—3 times the proportion of all children.
- Between 1994 and 2008, the proportion of Indigenous households who were home owners or buyers rose from 26% to 32%.
- Between 2002 and 2008, the proportion of Indigenous households living in dwellings with structural problems fell from 34% to 26%.
- Poor access to public utilities and overcrowded houses remain significant problems, particularly in remote communities.
- In 2006, nearly half (47%) of Indigenous families with dependent children were one‑parent families, accounting for 45% of dependent children.
- One in 5 Indigenous adults reported being a victim of violence in the 12 months prior to the NATSISS.
- In 2008–09, the rate of substantiated child protection notifications for Indigenous children was close to 8 times the rate for other children.
- Indigenous Australians comprised more than one-quarter of all prisoners as at June 2010.
- Between 2000 and 2010, the Indigenous imprisonment rate rose by 52%.
Preliminary pages: Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; Key points
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1: COAG Closing the Gap targets for Indigenous disadvantage
1.2 Structure of this report
Chapter 2 Demographic characteristics
2.1 Age structure
2.2 Geographical distribution
2.3 Household composition
Chapter 3 Determinants of health and welfare
3.1 Socioeconomic factors
3.2 Housing and transport
3.3 Community capacity
3.4 Behavioural factors
3.5 Social and emotional wellbeing
Chapter 4 Health and functioning
4.1 Community functioning
4.3 Health conditions
Chapter 5 Mortality and life expectancy
5.1 Life expectancy
5.2 All-cause mortality
5.3 Leading causes of Indigenous mortality
5.4 Premature mortality due to chronic diseases
5.5 Trends in Indigenous mortality
Chapter 6 Health across the life stages
6.1 Mothers and babies
6.3 Young people
6.4 Older people
Chapter 7 Health care and other support services
7.1 Preventive care
7.2 Primary and community health services
7.3 Hospital services
7.4 Indigenous participation in the medical workforce
7.5 Specialised services
7.6 Support and care services
Chapter 8 Health and welfare expenditure
8.1 Indigenous health care expenditure
8.2 Welfare expenditure
End matter: References; List of figures; List of tables