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Australia’s health 2016—in brief presents highlights from the AIHW’s 15th biennial report on the nation’s health, Australia’s health 2016.
301,000 nurses and midwives were employed in 2014
381,000 visits are made to a GP on an average day in Australia—and 79,000 visits to a specialist
85% of Australians aged 15 and over describe their health as ‘good’ or better
63% of adults are overweight or obese
One measure of health is life expectancy—and on that score Australia performs particularly well. But there are many other ways to look at health, such as how many of us are living with a chronic disease, and how many 'healthy' years we are losing to ill health.
In 2014-15, 85% of Australians aged 15 and over self-rated their health as 'good' or better. This was similar to the proportion recorded in 2011-12.
Australia is one of the leading countries on this measure—among 34 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries we rank only behind New Zealand (90%), Canada (89%) and the United States (88%), and we rank higher than the OECD average of 69%.
More than half (56%) of Australians rated their health as 'excellent' or 'very good'. Just over 1 in 10 (10.4%) Australians rated their health as 'fair' (10.7% in 2011-12), and 4.4% as 'poor' (4.0% in 2011-12).
By comparison, only 39% of Indigenous Australians rated their health as 'excellent' or 'very good' in 2012-13—a decrease from 44% in 2008 and 43% in 2004-05. A further 37% reported their health as 'good', 17% as 'fair' and 7% as 'poor' in 2012-13.
Adjusting for differences in age structure, 29% of Indigenous Australians rated their health as 'fair' or 'poor', more than double the non-Indigenous rate of 14%.
A boy born between 2012 and 2014 can expect to live to 80.3 years and a girl to 84.4 years. This compares with life expectancies at birth of 67.1 and 72.8 years, respectively, for those born in 1955; and 47.2 and 50.8 years, respectively, for those born in 1890.
Males who had survived to the age of 65 in 2014 could expect to live, on average, another 19.4 years (to 84.4 years) and females an extra 22.2 years (to 87.2).
The concept of what it means to be 'healthy' encompasses not just how many years a person lives, but whether those years are lived with disability, chronic illness, or other health conditions that affect quality of life.
In 2012, a newborn boy in Australia could expect to live 62.4 years without disability and another 17.5 years with some form of disability, including 5.6 years with severe or profound core activity limitation. Girls born in 2012 could expect to live 64.5 years without disability and 19.8 years with some form of disability, including 7.8 years with severe or profound core activity limitation.
In 2013, nearly 147,700 deaths were registered in Australia.
For the first time, the total number of deaths due to all types of cancer combined (44,100) surpassed the total number of deaths due to cardiovascular disease (which includes coronary heart disease, stroke and heart failure) (43,600). However, coronary heart disease continues to be the leading specific cause of death in Australia (19,800 deaths in 2013).
'Burden of disease' comprises both the burden of living with ill health and the burden of dying prematurely, and it is measured in 'disability-adjusted life years' (DALY). One DALY is one year of 'healthy life' lost due to illness and/or death.
Overall, in 2011, for every 1,000 people in Australia, there were 201 years of healthy life lost due to dying or living with disease or injury. This was equivalent to 4.5 million DALY in total.
Cancer; cardiovascular disease; mental and substance-use disorders; musculoskeletal disorders; and injury contributed most to the burden of disease in Australia in 2011 —together they accounted for around two-thirds of the total burden (69% of the burden for males, 62% of the burden for females).
Between 2003 and 2011, using age-standardised rates, the burden of disease for the Australian population decreased by 10%.
The various life stages between childhood and death are accompanied by different health challenges.
This table shows the leading causes of fatal, non-fatal and total burden of disease for Australian males and females, from infancy to older age groups. The table shows the top-ranked condition only.
Chronic diseases are the leading cause of ill health, disability and death in Australia, and have a significant impact on the health system. In 2014-15, based on self-reported data from the National Health Survey, more than 11 million Australians (50%) had at least 1 of 8 selected chronic diseases: arthritis; asthma; back pain and problems; cancer; cardiovascular disease; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; diabetes; and mental health conditions.
This rate was higher for:
Overall, 1 in 4 (23%) Australians—5.3 million people—had 2 or more of the 8 selected chronic diseases.
Cardiovascular disease (18%) and mental health conditions (18%) were the most commonly reported of the selected chronic diseases, followed by back pain and problems (16%).
Chronic diseases can have large impacts on quality of life and can have social and economic effects. The eight selected chronic diseases were associated with:
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