attributable burden: The disease burden attributed to a particular risk factor. It is the reduction in fatal and non-fatal burden that would have occurred if exposure to the risk factor had been avoided (or more precisely had been at its theoretical minimum).
burden of disease (and injury): The quantified impact of a disease or injury on a population, using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) measure. Referred to as the ‘burden’ of the disease or injury in this report.
condition (health condition): A broad term that can be applied to any health problem, including symptoms, diseases and certain risk factors, such as high blood cholesterol and obesity. Often used synonymously with disorder or problem.
DALY (disability-adjusted life years): Measure (in years) of healthy life lost, either through premature death defined as dying before the expected life span at the age of death (YLL) or, equivalently, through living with ill health due to illness or injury (YLD).
disability: In burden of disease analysis, any departure from an ideal health state.
disease: A broad term that can be applied to any health problem, including symptoms, diseases, injuries and certain risk factors, such as high blood cholesterol and obesity. Often used synonymously with condition, disorder or problem.
external cause: The environmental event, circumstance or condition as the cause of injury, poisoning and other adverse effect. METeOR identifier: 514295.
fatal burden: The burden from dying ‘prematurely’ as measured by years of life lost. Often used synonymously with YLL, and also referred to as ‘life lost’.
linked disease: A disease or condition on the causal pathway of the risk factor, which is therefore more likely to develop if exposed to the risk.
non-fatal burden: The burden from living with ill health as measured by years lived with disability. Often used synonymously with YLD.
population attributable fraction (PAF): The proportion (fraction) of a disease, illness, disability or death in a population that can be attributed to a particular risk factor or combination of risk factors.
rate: A rate is one number (the numerator) divided by another number (the denominator). The numerator is commonly the number of events in a specified time. The denominator is the population ‘at risk’ of the event. Rates (crude, age-specific and age‑standardised) are generally multiplied by a number such as 1,000 to create whole numbers.
risk factor: Any factor that represents a greater risk of a health condition or health event. For example, smoking, alcohol use, high body mass.
YLD (years lived with disability): A measure of the years of what could have been a healthy life but were instead spent in states of less than full health. YLD represent non-fatal burden.
YLL (years of life lost): Years of life lost due to premature death, defined as dying before the global ideal life span at the age of death. YLL represent fatal burden.