According to the 2016 National Eye Health Survey, refractive error, cataract and diabetic retinopathy are the leading causes of vision loss among First Nations people. Information on First Nations hospitalisations for cataract surgery, treatment for diabetic retinopathy and provision of spectacles (a low cost-effective treatment for refractive error), for example, reflect the prevalence of particular conditions in the population as well as the use of health services.

The following measures provide information on the use of eye health treatment services which allows for ongoing monitoring and for identification of particular services, regions or groups within the First Nations population, where access to and use of services could be improved.